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善恶之争

第九章 瑞士的改革运动

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录

 

瑞士的改革运动     The Swiss Reformer
 
     
01  那为改革教会所用拣选人才的计划,乃是与为建立教会所采用的计划相同的。那从天上来的教师,不顾那些在地上惯于受民众赞扬而尊为领袖的有财有势的大人物。因为他们骄傲自恃,自夸优越,所以不能同情他们的同胞,而成为这位谦卑的“拿撒勒人”的同工者。他却向一些没有学问,刻苦耐劳的加利利渔夫发出呼召说:“来跟从我,我要叫你们得人如得鱼一样。”(太4:19)这些门徒是谦卑可教的。他们越少受当时虚伪教训的影响,基督则越能训练他们为他服务。宗教大改革的时候也是如此。领导宗教改革的都是一些平凡的人们──比一般人少有那因高贵身份而生的骄傲,并少受当时的偏见和神父迷惑的影响。上帝的计划是要用卑微的器皿来成就伟大的事业。于是荣耀就不会归给世人,而只能归给上帝。因为他们立志行事,都是上帝在他们心里运行,为要成就他的美意。     In the choice of instrumentalities for the reforming of the church, the same divine plan is seen as in that for the planting of the church. The heavenly Teacher passed by the great men of the earth, the titled and wealthy, who were accustomed to receive praise and homage as leaders of the people. They were so proud and self-confident in their boasted superiority that they could not be molded to sympathize with their fellow men and to become colaborers with the humble Man of Nazareth. To the unlearned, toiling fishermen of Galilee was the call addressed: "Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of men." Matthew 4:19. These disciples were humble and teachable. The less they had been influenced by the false teaching of their time, the more successfully could Christ instruct and train them for His service. So in the days of the Great Reformation. The leading Reformers were men from humble life--men who were most free of any of their time from pride of rank and from the influence of bigotry and priestcraft. It is God's plan to employ humble instruments to accomplish great results. Then the glory will not be given to men, but to Him who works through them to will and to do of His own good pleasure. {GC 171.1}
     
02  路德诞生在撒克逊一个矿工的小屋中不过几周之后,萨文黎就在阿尔卑斯山中一个牧人的茅舍中出世了。萨文黎儿时的环境和他幼年的训练,为他将来的使命作了准备。他在那巍峨,壮丽,和雄伟的自然环境中长大成人,所以他心中很早就感觉到上帝的伟大,权能,和威严。古人在他所住的山间所成就的伟迹,引起了他青年的壮志。他又在虔诚的祖母膝前,听到她从教会的传说中搜集来几个宝贵的《圣经》故事。他以热切的兴趣谛听众先祖先知的伟迹,和牧人在巴勒斯坦山地看守羊群时天使向他们报信,以及伯利恒的圣婴,和髑髅地的救主等等故事。     A few weeks after the birth of Luther in a miner's cabin in Saxony, Ulric Zwingli was born in a herdsman's cottage among the Alps. Zwingli's surroundings in childhood, and his early training, were such as to prepare him for his future mission. Reared amid scenes of natural grandeur, beauty, and awful sublimity, his mind was early impressed with a sense of the greatness, the power, and the majesty of God. The history of the brave deeds achieved upon his native mountains kindled his youthful aspirations. And at the side of his pious grandmother he listened to the few precious Bible stories which she had gleaned from amid the legends and traditions of the church. With eager interest he heard of the grand deeds of patriarchs and prophets, of the shepherds who watched their flocks on the hills of Palestine where angels talked with them, of the Babe of Bethlehem and the Man of Calvary. {GC 171.2}
     
03  萨文黎的父亲象路德的父亲一样,关心他儿子的教育,所以这个孩子从小就离开山中的故乡出外求学。他的智力发展很快,不久就很难找到有资格的老师来教导他。到了十三岁,他到百伦城瑞士最著名的一所学校去求学,但结果在那里发生了一个足以破坏他一生前途的危险。有一些托钵僧在那里竭力怂恿他入修道院。那时多密尼克教团和法兰西斯教团的僧侣们正在互争民众的拥护。他们就企图利用他们富丽的教堂,隆重的仪式,著名的圣物以及能行神迹的神像来吸引人,以求得到他们的拥护。     Like John Luther, Zwingli's father desired an education for his son, and the boy was early sent from his native valley. His mind rapidly developed, and it soon became a question where to find teachers competent to instruct him. At the age of thirteen he went to Bern, which then possessed the most distinguished school in Switzerland. Here, however, a danger arose which threatened to blight the promise of his life. Determined efforts were put forth by the friars to allure him into a monastery. The Dominican and Franciscan monks were in rivalry for popular favor. This they endeavored to secure by the showy adornments of their churches, the pomp of their ceremonials, and the attractions of famous relics and miracle-working images. {GC 172.1}
     
04  在百伦城的多密尼克教团的僧侣看出他们若能得到这个多才多艺的青年学子,他们就能名利双收。他年纪既是那么轻,又有演讲,写作,音乐,和诗歌的天才,在吸引民众参加他们的礼拜,增加教团的收入方面,必要比他们一切的炫耀和浮华更有效力。于是他们设法用欺骗和谄媚的手段引诱萨文黎进入他们的修道院。从前路德在学校作学生的时候,就曾埋头于修道院的一间斗室中,如果不是上帝释放了他,他就必一生湮没无闻了。上帝没有让萨文黎遭遇这同样的危险。很幸运地,他父亲听到了僧侣们的计谋。他没有意思让儿子去度那种僧侣的闲懒无用的生活。他看出儿子的前途岌岌可危,所以吩咐他立时回家,不许迟延。     The Dominicans of Bern saw that if they could win this talented young scholar, they would secure both gain and honor. His extreme youth, his natural ability as a speaker and writer, and his genius for music and poetry, would be more effective than all their pomp and display, in attracting the people to their services and increasing the revenues of their order. By deceit and flattery they endeavored to induce Zwingli to enter their convent. Luther, while a student at school, had buried himself in a convent cell, and he would have been lost to the world had not God's providence released him. Zwingli was not permitted to encounter the same peril. Providentially his father received information of the designs of the friars. He had no intention of allowing his son to follow the idle and worthless life of the monks. He saw that his future usefulness was at stake, and directed him to return home without delay. {GC 172.2}
     
05  萨文黎遵从了父亲的命令;但这个青年不甘蛰伏于山间的故乡,不久他就到巴塞尔去继续他的学业。萨文黎在这里初次听到上帝白白赐恩给人的福音。那时有一个研究古代方言的教授威丁伯,在研究希腊文和希伯来文的时候,曾注意到《圣经》,于是就有从上帝那里来的光辉照在他门下的学生心中。他讲述有一种更古的真理,比当时的烦琐学者和哲学家所教导的理论有价值多了。这种古代的真理以基督的死为罪人唯一的赎价。这些话在萨文黎听来,乃是黎明之前的第一线曙光。     The command was obeyed; but the youth could not be long content in his native valley, and he soon resumed his studies, repairing, after a time, to Basel. It was here that Zwingli first heard the gospel of God's free grace. Wittembach, a teacher of the ancient languages, had, while studying Greek and Hebrew, been led to the Holy Scriptures, and thus rays of divine light were shed into the minds of the students under his instruction. He declared that there was a truth more ancient, and of infinitely greater worth, than the theories taught by schoolmen and philosophers. This ancient truth was that the death of Christ is the sinner's only ransom. To Zwingli these words were as the first ray of light that precedes the dawn. {GC 173.1}
     
06  不久,萨文黎从巴塞尔被召去从事他一生的工作。他第一个工作的地点就在阿尔卑斯山的教区里,离他的故乡并不远。他的一位同工谈到他说:“他既被封为神父,就埋头搜求神圣的真理;因为他深知一个受托照管基督羊群的人,应当博学多闻。”(注一)他越查考《圣经》,《圣经》的真理与罗马教的谬论之间的区别就越显得清楚了。他认为《圣经》是上帝的话,是唯一完全而万万不能错误的标准。他看出必须以《圣经》的话来解释《圣经》。他不敢以解释《圣经》来支持一个先入为主的理论或教义,却以学习《圣经》中直接明白的教训为自己的本分。他尽量利用一切有助于他的材料,以便充分地、正确地明白《圣经》中的意义,所以他祈求圣灵的帮助,他说圣灵必向一切真诚祈求的人,启示《圣经》的奥秘。     Zwingli was soon called from Basel to enter upon his lifework. His first field of labor was in an Alpine parish, not far distant from his native valley. Having received ordination as a priest, he "devoted himself with his whole soul to the search after divine truth; for he was well aware," says a fellow Reformer, "how much he must know to whom the flock of Christ is entrusted."--Wylie, b. 8, ch. 5. The more he searched the Scriptures, the clearer appeared the contrast between their truths and the heresies of Rome. He submitted himself to the Bible as the word of God, the only sufficient, infallible rule. He saw that it must be its own interpreter. He dared not attempt to explain Scripture to sustain a preconceived theory or doctrine, but held it his duty to learn what is its direct and obvious teaching. He sought to avail himself of every help to obtain a full and correct understanding of its meaning, and he invoked the aid of the Holy Spirit, which would, he declared, reveal it to all who sought it in sincerity and with prayer.
     
07  萨文黎说:“《圣经》是从上帝来的,并不是从人而来,而且那光照人的上帝必亲自使你明白这些圣言是由他而来。上帝的话……不能失效;它是光明的,它自己教导,自己发明,用一切救恩光照人心,使人在上帝里面得到安慰,使人谦卑,以致放弃自己而归依上帝。”(注二)萨文黎自己证明了这些话的真理。他后来论到自己这时的经历说:“当……我专心查考《圣经》的时候,哲学和烦琐神学时常在心中相争。最后我得了结论,就对自己说:‘你必须把这些放在一边,单纯从上帝简明的话里学得他的意思。’于是我开始祈求上帝赐我亮光,以后我对于《圣经》就比较容易明白了。”(注三)     "The Scriptures," said Zwingli, "come from God, not from man, and even that God who enlightens will give thee to understand that the speech comes from God. The word of God . . . cannot fail; it is bright, it teaches itself, it discloses itself, it illumines the soul with all salvation and grace, comforts it in God, humbles it, so that it loses and even forfeits itself, and embraces God." The truth of these words Zwingli himself had proved. Speaking of his experience at this time, he afterward wrote: "When . . . I began to give myself wholly up to the Holy Scriptures, philosophy and theology (scholastic) would always keep suggesting quarrels to me. At last I came to this, that I thought, `Thou must let all that lie, and learn the meaning of God purely out of His own simple word.' Then I began to ask God for His light, and the Scriptures began to be much easier to me."--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. {GC 174.1}
     
08  萨文黎所传的道不是从路德那里领受的。他所传的乃是基督的道。这位瑞士的宗教改革家说:“如果路德传讲基督,那么他所作的正是我现在所作的。他所引领归向基督的人数比我所引领的更多。这没有关系。除了基督之外,我必不称任何别的名,我是基督的精兵,惟有他是我的元首。我从来没有片言只字写给路德,他也没有写给我。这是为什么呢?……乃是为要显明上帝的圣灵是一致的,我们二人并没有通过什么消息,然而我们所教导基督的道却是若合符节的。”(注四)     The doctrine preached by Zwingli was not received from Luther. It was the doctrine of Christ. "If Luther preaches Christ," said the Swiss Reformer, "he does what I am doing. Those whom he has brought to Christ are more numerous than those whom I have led. But this matters not. I will bear no other name than that of Christ, whose soldier I am, and who alone is my Chief. Never has one single word been written by me to Luther, nor by Luther to me. And why? . . . That it might be shown how much the Spirit of God is in unison with itself, since both of us, without any collusion, teach the doctrine of Christ with such uniformity." --D'Aubigne, b. 8, ch. 9. {GC 174.2}
     
09  公元一五一六年,萨文黎被请作爱因西敦修道院的传道士。他在这里更清楚地看到罗马教的腐败情形,同时他在这里所发挥的宗教改革的影响,比在阿尔卑斯山间故乡所发挥的更加远大。在爱因西敦所有引人注意的事物之中,有一个童女马利亚的神像,据说它有行神迹的能力。修道院大门上有下列的刻字:“此地可得完全赦罪之恩。”(注五)一年四季经常有朝圣的人前来参拜童女的神龛,但每逢一年一度的最大节期,必有许多人从瑞士各地来朝拜,甚至从法国和德国也有人来。萨文黎看到这种现象就极其痛心,他利用一切机会向这些被迷信束缚的人,宣传那借福音而得来的自由。     In 1516 Zwingli was invited to become a preacher in the convent at Einsiedeln. Here he was to have a closer view of the corruptions of Rome and was to exert an influence as a Reformer that would be felt far beyond his native Alps. Among the chief attractions of Einsiedeln was an image of the Virgin which was said to have the power of working miracles. Above the gateway of the convent was the inscription, "Here a plenary remission of sins may be obtained."--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 5. Pilgrims at all seasons resorted to the shrine of the Virgin; but at the great yearly festival of its consecration multitudes came from all parts of Switzerland, and even from France and Germany. Zwingli, greatly afflicted at the sight, seized the opportunity to proclaim liberty through the gospel to these bondslaves of superstition. {GC 174.3}
     
10  他说:“莫想上帝住在圣殿中的时候比住在别处还多。你无论住在哪里,上帝就在你周围,并听你的祷告。……那些无益的作为,例如长途跋涉的朝圣,献捐,制作神像,向童女或先圣祷告,能使你获得上帝的恩典么?……我们重复的祷告有什么益处呢?耀目的头巾,剃光的头皮,飘飘的长袍和绣金的胸衣有什么效验呢?……上帝是鉴察人心的;我们的心离他太远了。”他说:“基督曾一次献在十字架上,成了牺牲品,已经救赎了世世代代相信他之人的罪。”(注五)     "Do not imagine," he said, "that God is in this temple more than in any other part of creation. Whatever be the country in which you dwell, God is around you, and hears you. . . . Can unprofitable works, long pilgrimages, offerings, images, the invocation of the Virgin or of the saints, secure for you the grace of God? . . . What avails the multitude of words with which we embody our prayers? What efficacy has a glossy cowl, a smooth-shorn head, a long and flowing robe, or gold-embroidered slippers? . . . God looks at the heart, and our hearts are far from Him." "Christ," he said, "who was once offered upon the cross, is the sacrifice and victim, that had made satisfaction for the sins of believers to all eternity."--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 5. {GC 175.1}
     
11  这些教训对于许多听众是难于领受的。他们听到长途跋涉的朝拜乃是枉然的,就极其失望。基督白白的赦免他们,这是他们所不能了解的。他们对于罗马教为他们划出的那条通到天国的老路甚感满意。至于搜求其他更美的事物,他们就大感困恼,裹足不前了。在他们看来,把得救的问题托给神父和教皇,比自己追求心灵的纯洁容易得多了。     To many listeners these teachings were unwelcome. It was a bitter disappointment to them to be told that their toilsome journey had been made in vain. The pardon freely offered to them through Christ they could not comprehend. They were satisfied with the old way to heaven which Rome had marked out for them. They shrank from the perplexity of searching for anything better. It was easier to trust their salvation to the priests and the pope than to seek for purity of heart. {GC 175.2}
     
12  但是另有一等人则欢喜领受那宣明罪人能再靠基督得蒙救赎的福音。罗马教所规定的种种仪式既不能使人的心灵得到平安,他们就因着信,接受了救主的血为他们的挽回祭。这些朝圣的人回去之后,便将自己所领受的宝贵亮光传给别人。于是真理从一村传到另一村,从一镇传到另一镇,因此去朝拜童女神像的人便大大减少了。捐款的数目也降低了,结果萨文黎从捐款中所支取的薪水也受到影响。可是这只有使他欢喜,因为他看到狂热和迷信的势力已经被打破了。     But another class received with gladness the tidings of redemption through Christ. The observances enjoined by Rome had failed to bring peace of soul, and in faith they accepted the Saviour's blood as their propitiation. These returned to their homes to reveal to others the precious light which they had received. The truth was thus carried from hamlet to hamlet, from town to town, and the number of pilgrims to the Virgin's shrine greatly lessened. There was a falling off in the offerings, and consequently in the salary of Zwingli, which was drawn from them. But this caused him only joy as he saw that the power of fanaticism and superstition was being broken. {GC 175.3}
     
13  教会当局并非没有看出萨文黎所成就的工作,但他们当时没有加以干涉。他们还希望能使他赞助他们的工作,所以一直用奉承的手段争取他;而同时真理在民众心中则渐渐得势了。     The authorities of the church were not blind to the work which Zwingli was accomplishing; but for the present they forbore to interfere. Hoping yet to secure him to their cause, they endeavored to win him by flatteries; and meanwhile the truth was gaining a hold upon the hearts of the people. {GC 176.1}
     
14  萨文黎在爱因西敦的工作使他作了准备,他不久就进入了更广大的工作园地。他在爱因西敦工作了三年之后,就被召到沮利克的一个大教堂去担任传道士。沮利克是当时瑞士联邦的一个主要城市,在这里所发出的影响能普及远近各地。那邀请他来沮利克的教会当局想要阻止任何新的设施,因此将他的本分训示他。     Zwingli's labors at Einsiedeln had prepared him for a wider field, and this he was soon to enter. After three years here he was called to the office of preacher in the cathedral at Zurich. This was then the most important town of the Swiss confederacy, and the influence exerted here would be widely felt. The ecclesiastics by whose invitation he came to Zurich were, however, desirous of preventing any innovations, and they accordingly proceeded to instruct him as to his duties. {GC 176.2}
     
15  他们对他说:“你要尽一切的努力募集教堂的经费,一点不可疏忽。你要从讲台上和认罪会上劝勉忠心的教友付纳一切当纳的什一和捐献,借以显明他们对教会的爱心。你要从病人身上,从举行弥撒祭以及一般牧师所主持的礼节上,努力增加收入。”那些向他训话的人又说:“至于执行圣礼,宣讲教义和照顾羊群,固然也是牧师的本分;但为这些工作,尤其是宣讲教义的工作,你尽可以雇用一个助手代替你。除了一些大人物提出要求之外,你不可为任何人执行圣礼;你不可一视同仁地随便给人执行圣礼。”(注六)     "You will make every exertion," they said, "to collect the revenues of the chapter, without overlooking the least. You will exhort the faithful, both from the pulpit and in the confessional, to pay all tithes and dues, and to show by their offerings their affection to the church. You will be diligent in increasing the income arising from the sick, from masses, and in general from every ecclesiastical ordinance." "As for the administration of the sacraments, the preaching, and the care of the flock," added his instructors, "these are also the duties of the chaplain. But for these you may employ a substitute, and particularly in preaching. You should administer the sacraments to none but persons of note, and only when called upon; you are forbidden to do so without distinction of persons."--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. {GC 176.3}
     
16  萨文黎静听了这一番训话,他回答的时候,先对蒙召担任这重要职务所有的光荣表示感激,然后开始说明他所要采取的行动。他说:“基督的生活被埋没得太久了。我打算宣讲全部马太福音,……单从《圣经》中深深的寻求本源,以经文与经文互相对照,并恒切祷告,祈求明白《圣经》的知识。我所献身从事的工作是以使上帝得荣耀,使他的独生子受赞美,使众人得蒙救赎,以及他们在真信仰上得蒙造就为宗旨。”虽然教会当局的神父们不赞成他的计划,并劝他放弃,但萨文黎坚定不移。他声称,他并不是介绍新的方法,而是用古昔更纯洁时期的教会所使用的老方法。     Zwingli listened in silence to this charge, and in reply, after expressing his gratitude for the honor of a call to this important station, he proceeded to explain the course which he proposed to adopt. "The life of Christ," he said, "has been too long hidden from the people. I shall preach upon the whole of the Gospel of St. Matthew, . . . drawing solely from the fountains of Scripture, sounding its depths, comparing one passage with another, and seeking for understanding by constant and earnest prayer. It is to God's glory, to the praise of His only Son, to the real salvation of souls, and to their edification in the true faith, that I shall consecrate my ministry."--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. Though some of the ecclesiastics disapproved his plan, and endeavored to dissuade him from it, Zwingli remained steadfast. He declared that he was about to introduce no new method, but the old method employed by the church in earlier and purer times. {GC 176.4}
     
17  这时,他所教导的真理已经引起了很多人的关注;民众蜂拥而来听他讲道。许多长久未来赴会的人也来听他讲道了。他开始服务时,以宣讲福音书入手,向听众宣读并解释基督的生平,以及他的教训和牺牲。他在这里也象在爱因西敦一样,提出上帝的话为唯一绝无错误的权威,基督的舍命为唯一完全的牺牲。他说:“我要领你们皈依基督,基督是真正的救恩之源。”(注八)麇集在这个传道士周围的各等人都有,有政治家,有学者,有工人,也有平民。他们都以极大的兴趣听他讲话。他不但宣传白白的承受救恩,而也毫无畏惧地斥责当时的邪恶和腐败。许多人从大教堂听道回来就赞美上帝说:“这个人是一个传讲真理的人。他要作我们的摩西,领我们从这埃及的黑暗中出来。”(注九)     Already an interest had been awakened in the truths he taught; and the people flocked in great numbers to listen to his preaching. Many who had long since ceased to attend service were among his hearers. He began his ministry by opening the Gospels and reading and explaining to his hearers the inspired narrative of the life, teachings, and death of Christ. Here, as at Einsiedeln, he presented the word of God as the only infallible authority and the death of Christ as the only complete sacrifice. "It is to Christ," he said, "that I desire to lead you--to Christ, the true source of salvation." --Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. Around the preacher crowded the people of all classes, from statesmen and scholars to the artisan and the peasant. With deep interest they listened to his words. He not only proclaimed the offer of a free salvation, but fearlessly rebuked the evils and corruptions of the times. Many returned from the cathedral praising God. "This man," they said, "is a preacher of the truth. He will be our Moses, to lead us forth from this Egyptian darkness."--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. {GC 177.1}
     
18  起初众人虽以很大的热诚接受了萨文黎的工作,但过了一时,反对就起来了。僧侣们决意要拦阻他的工作,并谴责他的教训。许多人用辱骂和讥诮来攻击他;还有人用蛮横和恫吓的手段对付他。但萨文黎耐心忍受这一切的对待,他说:“如果我们想要使恶人归向耶稣基督,有许多事必须闭眼不看。”(注十)     But though at first his labors were received with great enthusiasm, after a time opposition arose. The monks set themselves to hinder his work and condemn his teachings. Many assailed him with gibes and sneers; others resorted to insolence and threats. But Zwingli bore all with patience, saying: "If we desire to gain over the wicked to Jesus Christ, we must shut our eyes against many things." --Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. {GC 177.2}
     
19  约在此时,有一股新的力量来推进改革的工作。巴塞尔有一个赞助改革信仰的人,差他的一个朋友名叫琉善的带着一些路德的作品到沮利克来,他认为推销这些书籍乃是散播真光有力的方法。他写信给萨文黎说:“请你决定这个人是否具有充足的智慧和技巧;若是有的话,就请你让他带着路德的作品,尤其是他为教友所写的主祷文释义,在瑞士的各城镇乡村挨家挨户地推销。人越知道这些作品,购买的人也必越多。”(注十一)这样,真光就照耀到各地了。     About this time a new agency came in to advance the work of reform. One Lucian was sent to Zurich with some of Luther's writings, by a friend of the reformed faith at Basel, who suggested that the sale of these books might be a powerful means of scattering the light. "Ascertain," he wrote to Zwingli, "whether this man possesses sufficient prudence and skill; if so, let him carry from city to city, from town to town, from village to village, and even from house to house, among the Swiss, the works of Luther, and especially his exposition of the Lord's Prayer written for the laity. The more they are known, the more purchasers they will find." --Ibid., b. 8, ch. 6. Thus the light found entrance. {GC 178.1}
     
20  正当上帝预备打破无知和迷信的桎梏时,撒但就用他最大的力量要将世人笼罩在黑暗之中,并把镣铐更牢牢地锁住他们。当人们从各地起来将那借着基督宝血而得来的赦免和称义传给民众时,罗马教则下手以更大的努力在基督教世界开辟了购买赎罪券的市场。     At the time when God is preparing to break the shackles of ignorance and superstition, then it is that Satan works with greatest power to enshroud men in darkness and to bind their fetters still more firmly. As men were rising up in different lands to present to the people forgiveness and justification through the blood of Christ, Rome proceeded with renewed energy to open her market throughout Christendom, offering pardon for money. {GC 178.2}
     
21  罗马教为每一样罪都定出了它的价格,只要教会的银库可以经常充足,人们可以自由犯罪。这样,当时就有两种运动在推行,──一种是叫人用金银购买赦罪之恩;一种是叫人靠基督得蒙赦免,──一面有罗马教在那里放任罪恶,并以此为教会经济的来源;一面是宗教改革家在那里谴责罪恶,并指明基督是挽回祭和拯救者。     Every sin had its price, and men were granted free license for crime if the treasury of the church was kept well filled. Thus the two movements advanced,--one offering forgiveness of sin for money, the other forgiveness through Christ,-- Rome licensing sin and making it her source of revenue; the Reformers condemning sin and pointing to Christ as the propitiation and deliverer. {GC 178.3}
     
22  在德国,推销赎罪券的工作是委托给多明我教团的僧侣代办,由那丑名远扬的帖慈尔负责经营。这种贸易在瑞士则交给法兰西斯教团,由一个意大利的僧人撒母孙管理。撒母孙对罗马教会已经有了很大的贡献,他从德国和瑞士收集了大笔金钱充实教皇的财库。如今又遍历瑞士各地,吸引了许多群众,一面掠夺穷苦农民的微薄收入,一面勒索富裕人家的丰厚礼物。宗教改革的影响虽然未能完全制止他的贸易,可是他的收入已经因而减少了。撒母孙进入瑞士不久,就带着他的赎罪券到了一个邻近爱因西敦的城镇,那时萨文黎还在爱因西敦。这位改革家既知撒母孙的使命,就立刻予以反对。这两个人虽未见面,但萨文黎很成功地揭破了那僧侣的虚伪,使他不得不转向别处去了。     In Germany the sale of indulgences had been committed to the Dominican friars and was conducted by the infamous Tetzel. In Switzerland the traffic was put into the hands of the Franciscans, under the control of Samson, an Italian monk. Samson had already done good service to the church, having secured immense sums from Germany and Switzerland to fill the papal treasury. Now he traversed Switzerland, attracting great crowds, despoiling the poor peasants of their scanty earnings, and exacting rich gifts from the wealthy classes. But the influence of the reform already made itself felt in curtailing, though it could not stop, the traffic. Zwingli was still at Einsiedeln when Samson, soon after entering Switzerland, arrived with his wares at a neighboring town. Being apprised of his mission, the Reformer immediately set out to oppose him. The two did not meet, but such was Zwingli's success in exposing the friar's pretensions that he was obliged to leave for other quarters. {GC 178.4}
     
23  萨文黎在沮利克也热心传道,反对售卖赎罪券的商人;当撒母孙将要到沮利克的时候,该城的议会派使者通知他务必越过这城往别处去。他终于用欺诈的手段进了城,可是没有卖掉一张赎罪券就被遣送走了,他不久也离开了瑞士。     At Zurich, Zwingli preached zealously against the pardonmongers; and when Samson approached the place, he was met by a messenger from the council with an intimation that he was expected to pass on. He finally secured an entrance by stratagem, but was sent away without the sale of a single pardon, and he soon after left Switzerland. {GC 179.1}
     
24  一五一九年,瑞士曾发生一次瘟疫,称为“黑死病,”这事给改革的工作一个很大的刺激。当众人面临死亡的时候,许多的人就不能不感到他们最近所购买的赎罪券是多么虚空无用。于是他们渴望一种更确定的信仰基础。萨文黎在沮利克染了瘟疫;他的病势非常沉重,以致一点痊愈的希望都没有了,而且普遍传说他已经死了。在那最危急的时候,他自己的希望和勇气并没有动摇。他凭着信心仰望到髑髅地的十字架,依赖那全备的挽回祭。当他从“死亡的门”脱险回来时,他便以更大的热诚传讲福音;而且他的话发出了非常的力量。民众带着喜乐的心情欢迎他们所爱的牧师从濒于死亡的边缘又回到他们中间。他们自己也才侍候过患病和垂死的人,所以他们特别感到福音的可贵。     A strong impetus was given to the reform by the appearance of the plague, or Great Death, which swept over Switzerland in the year 1519. As men were thus brought face to face with the destroyer, many were led to feel how vain and worthless were the pardons which they had so lately purchased; and they longed for a surer foundation for their faith. Zwingli at Zurich was smitten down; he was brought so low that all hope of his recovery was relinquished, and the report was widely circulated that he was dead. In that trying hour his hope and courage were unshaken. He looked in faith to the cross of Calvary, trusting in the all-sufficient propitiation for sin. When he came back from the gates of death, it was to preach the gospel with greater fervor than ever before; and his words exerted an unwonted power. The people welcomed with joy their beloved pastor, returned to them from the brink of the grave. They themselves had come from attending upon the sick and the dying, and they felt, as never before, the value of the gospel. {GC 179.2}
     
25  这时萨文黎已经更清楚地明白福音的真理,并更充分地体验到它更新的能力。人类的堕落和救赎的计划乃是他深思默想的主题。他说:“在亚当内,我们都死了,并沉溺在败坏和被定罪的状况之中。”(注十二)“基督为我们换来了无穷无尽的救赎。……他的受苦是……个永远的牺牲,是永远有效的救治之方;这个牺牲为一切以坚定不移的信心依靠它的人,满足了上帝公义的条件。”可是萨文黎也清楚地教训人,我们不可因为基督的恩典而任意继续行在罪中。“无论何处,只要有人相信上帝,就有上帝临格;无论何处,只要有上帝与人同在,就有一种鼓励人行善的热诚存在。”(注十三)     Zwingli had arrived at a clearer understanding of its truths, and had more fully experienced in himself its renewing power. The fall of man and the plan of redemption were the subjects upon which he dwelt. "In Adam," he said, "we are all dead, sunk in corruption and condemnation." --Wylie, b. 8, ch. 9. "Christ . . . has purchased for us a never-ending redemption. . . . His passion is . . . an eternal sacrifice, and everlastingly effectual to heal; it satisfies the divine justice forever in behalf of all those who rely upon it with firm and unshaken faith." Yet he clearly taught that men are not, because of the grace of Christ, free to continue in sin. "Wherever there is faith in God, there God is; and wherever God abideth, there a zeal exists urging and impelling men to good works."--D'Aubigne, b. 8, ch. 9. {GC 180.1}
     
26  萨文黎的讲道引起了那么大的兴趣,以致沮利克的大教堂挤满了听众。他照着听众所能领受的程度,逐步将真理向他们阐明。他也非常小心,开始的时候并没有将任何足以令人惊异,或引起偏见的道理介绍给他们。他的工作是要赢得他们的心,使他们倾向基督的教训,用基督的爱融化他们的心,把基督的榜样摆在他们面前;当他们领受福音的原则时,他们所迷信的成见和行为,自然就会消除了。     Such was the interest in Zwingli's preaching that the cathedral was filled to overflowing with the crowds that came to listen to him. Little by little, as they could bear it, he opened the truth to his hearers. He was careful not to introduce, at first, points which would startle them and create prejudice. His work was to win their hearts to the teachings of Christ, to soften them by His love, and keep before them His example; and as they should receive the principles of the gospel, their superstitious beliefs and practices would inevitably be overthrown. {GC 180.2}
     
27  改革的工作在沮利克逐步推进。于是仇敌警觉起来。要积极的反对它。一年之前,威丁堡的一个修道士曾在俄姆斯拒绝教皇和皇帝的命令,如今沮利克也有同样抵抗教皇威权的举动。萨文黎多次受到了攻击。在罗马教的行政区内,一些福音的信徒往往被处火刑,但他们还不以为满足,他们非要把讲异端的教师萨文黎治死不可。因此康士坦司的主教派遣三位代表到沮利克的议会上去,控告萨文黎教导百姓违犯教会的规则,危害到社会的安宁和秩序。主教强调说,如果教会的权威被抹煞,结果必要引起普遍的扰乱。萨文黎在回答中声明,他已经在沮利克宣传福音四年之久,而现在“沮利克在瑞士联邦的诸城中是最安静和平的。基督教岂不是社会安宁最好的保障么?”(注十四)     Step by step the Reformation advanced in Zurich. In alarm its enemies aroused to active opposition. One year before, the monk of Wittenberg had uttered his No to the pope and the emperor at Worms, and now everything seemed to indicate a similar withstanding of the papal claims at Zurich. Repeated attacks were made upon Zwingli. In the papal cantons, from time to time, disciples of the gospel were brought to the stake, but this was not enough; the teacher of heresy must be silenced. Accordingly the bishop of Constance dispatched three deputies to the Council of Zurich, accusing Zwingli of teaching the people to transgress the laws of the church, thus endangering the peace and good order of society. If the authority of the church were to be set aside, he urged, universal anarchy would result. Zwingli replied that he had been for four years teaching the gospel in Zurich, "which was more quiet and peaceful than any other town in the confederacy." "Is not, then," he said, "Christianity the best safeguard of the general security?"--Wylie, b. 8, ch. 11. {GC 180.3}
     
28  代表们劝那些议员务要继续作忠实的罗马教徒,他们声称除了教会之外,别无拯救。萨文黎回答说:“你们不要因这些话信心动摇。教会的根基就是那磐石基督,他曾因彼得忠心承认他而称他为矶法。在各国之中,凡是全心相信主耶稣的人都必蒙上帝悦纳。这才是真教会,除此以外,无人可以得救。”(注十五)因了这一次谈话的结果,主教所派的代表当中竟有一位接受了宗教改革的信仰。     The deputies had admonished the councilors to continue in the church, out of which, they declared, there was no salvation. Zwingli responded: "Let not this accusation move you. The foundation of the church is the same Rock, the same Christ, that gave Peter his name because he confessed Him faithfully. In every nation whosoever believes with all his heart in the Lord Jesus is accepted of God. Here, truly, is the church, out of which no one can be saved."--D'Aubigne, London ed., b. 8, ch. 11. As a result of the conference, one of the bishop's deputies accepted the reformed faith. {GC 181.1}
     
29  沮利克的议会不肯采取反对萨文黎的措施,于是罗马教准备了新的攻势。当这位宗教改革家听到仇敌的计谋时,他说:“让他们来吧;我惧怕他们正如千寻的悬崖惧怕那冲击它的怒涛一般。”(注十六)僧侣们的努力反而推进了他们所想要推翻的工作。真理继续传开了。因路德失踪而沮丧的德国信徒看到福音在瑞士的进步,就重新鼓舞起来了。     The council declined to take action against Zwingli, and Rome prepared for a fresh attack. The Reformer, when apprised of the plots of his enemies, exclaimed: "Let them come on; I fear them as the beetling cliff fears the waves that thunder at its feet."--Wylie, b. 8, ch. 11. The efforts of the ecclesiastics only furthered the cause which they sought to overthrow. The truth continued to spread. In Germany its adherents, cast down by Luther's disappearance, took heart again, as they saw the progress of the gospel in Switzerland. {GC 181.2}

 

     
30  当改革运动在沮利克稳步前进时,它的效果就在抑制罪恶,建设秩序,改良治安上更充分地显明出来了。萨文黎说:“我们的城内有平安,没有争论,没有伪善,没有嫉妒,没有纷争。除了从主得来之外,还能从哪里得到这样的和谐呢?我们的道理使我们满得和平和敬虔的果实。”(注十七)     As the Reformation became established in Zurich, its fruits were more fully seen in the suppression of vice and the promotion of order and harmony. "Peace has her habitation in our town," wrote Zwingli; "no quarrel, no hypocrisy, no envy, no strife. Whence can such union come but from the Lord, and our doctrine, which fills us with the fruits of peace and piety?"--Ibid., b. 8, ch. 15. {GC 181.3}

 

     
31  宗教改革运动所得的胜利反使罗马教当局更坚决地要推翻它。他们看到在德国用逼迫的手段来镇压路德的工作收效既然不大,就决定用改革家自己的武器来应付他们。他们要与萨文黎举行一次辩论会,并且事先布置一切,不但拣选了辩论的地点,而也请好了自己的裁判员,以求稳获胜利。只要萨文黎落到他们手中,他们就决不让他再逃脱。改革运动的领袖一死,这运动自必瓦解。虽然如此,他们却小心翼翼地隐瞒着这个目的。     The victories gained by the Reformation stirred the Romanists to still more determined efforts for its overthrow. Seeing how little had been accomplished by persecution in suppressing Luther's work in Germany, they decided to meet the reform with its own weapons. They would hold a disputation with Zwingli, and having the arrangement of matters, they would make sure of victory by choosing, themselves, not only the place of the combat, but the judges that should decide between the disputants. And if they could once get Zwingli into their power, they would take care that he did not escape them. The leader silenced, the movement could speedily be crushed. This purpose, however, was carefully concealed. {GC 181.4}

 

     
32  辩论会指定在巴登举行;但萨文黎没有出席。沮利克的议会怀疑教皇的计谋,又鉴于教皇区域内过去在承认福音的人身上所执行的火刑,就不让他们的牧师陷于危险之中。若是在沮利克,他可以应付罗马教所派来的一切党羽;但是若到刚刚流了殉道者之血的巴登去,则必死无疑。于是他们拣选了爱克兰帕底和哈勒作宗教改革家的代表,而为罗马发言的乃是著名的艾克博士,还有一大队有学问的博士和主教帮助他。     The disputation was appointed to be held at Baden; but Zwingli was not present. The Council of Zurich, suspecting the designs of the papists, and warned by the burning piles kindled in the papal cantons for confessors of the gospel, forbade their pastor to expose himself to this peril. At Zurich he was ready to meet all the partisans that Rome might send; but to go to Baden, where the blood of martyrs for the truth had just been shed, was to go to certain death. Oecolampadius and Haller were chosen to represent the Reformers, while the famous Dr. Eck, supported by a host of learned doctors and prelates, was the champion of Rome. {GC 182.1}

 

     
33  萨文黎虽然没有出席会议。但他的影响仍然存在着的。会议的记录员都是由罗马教选任的,其余的人则不许作记录,违者处以死刑。虽然如此,萨文黎却每天收到一份关于巴登所发之言论的详尽记录。有一个参加辩论会的学生,每天晚上将当天所辩论的事都记录下来。另有两个学生负责连同爱克兰帕底每天的信件,送给在沮利克的萨文黎。这位改革家就把自己的意见和建议连夜写信回答,由学生第二天早晨带回巴登。为避免城门口守卫兵的盘查起见,这些送信的人头上顶着满装鸡鸭的筐子进城,就得以通行无阻。     Though Zwingli was not present at the conference, his influence was felt. The secretaries were all chosen by the papists, and others were forbidden to take notes, on pain of death. Notwithstanding this, Zwingli received daily a faithful account of what was said at Baden. A student in attendance at the disputation made a record each evening of the arguments that day presented. These papers two other students undertook to deliver, with the daily letters of Oecolampadius, to Zwingli at Zurich. The Reformer answered, giving counsel and suggestions. His letters were written by night, and the students returned with them to Baden in the morning. To elude the vigilance of the guard stationed at the city gates, these messengers brought baskets of poultry on their heads, and they were permitted to pass without hindrance.

 

     
34  萨文黎就这样与他狡猾的敌手作战。当时代的一个观察家麦克尼说:“他思考,研究,彻夜无眠,赶出意见书送往巴登去,这工作比他亲自在仇敌中辩论更为繁重。”(注十八)     Thus Zwingli maintained the battle with his wily antagonists. He "has labored more," said Myconius, "by his meditations, his sleepless nights, and the advice which he transmitted to Baden, than he would have done by discussing in person in the midst of his enemies."--D'Aubigne, b. 11, ch. 13. {GC 183.1}

 

     
35  罗马教的代表预期必定胜利,因而兴高采烈地来到巴登,他们穿着华丽的衣服,戴着耀目的装饰;席丰履厚,大肆铺张,每天吃着最贵重的美味和上好的脂酒。他们因宴乐狂饮也不觉得教牧责任的繁重了。而宗教改革者的外表正是相反的对照,他们的样子在众人看来与一群乞丐无异,吃的是粗茶淡饭,所以在餐桌上的时间不多。爱克兰帕底的房东暗地里观察他,看到他在房中常在看书或祈祷,就大大惊异,说,这个“叛教徒”倒是一个“很敬虔”的人。     The Romanists, flushed with anticipated triumph, had come to Baden attired in their richest robes and glittering with jewels. They fared luxuriously, their tables spread with the most costly delicacies and the choicest wines. The burden of their ecclesiastical duties was lightened by gaiety and reveling. In marked contrast appeared the Reformers, who were looked upon by the people as little better than a company of beggars, and whose frugal fare kept them but short time at table. Oecolampadius's landlord, taking occasion to watch him in his room, found him always engaged in study or at prayer, and greatly wondering, reported that the heretic was at least "very pious." {GC 183.2}

 

     
36  在辩论会中,“艾克傲慢地登上一个装饰华丽的讲台,而那平凡的爱克兰帕底则穿着简陋的服装,不得不坐在他对手面前的一张雕刻粗陋的凳子上。”(注十九)艾克从始至终声音宏亮,气派很大。他的热情是由“名利双收”的希望所鼓舞的;因为他为罗马教的信仰辩护,可以得到一笔相当可观的津贴为报酬。所以当他找不到更有力量的论据时,他就借助于侮辱和咒骂的手段了。     At the conference, "Eck haughtily ascended a pulpit splendidly decorated, while the humble Oecolampadius, meanly clothed, was forced to take his seat in front of his opponent on a rudely carved stool."--Ibid., b. 11, ch. 13. Eck's stentorian voice and unbounded assurance never failed him. His zeal was stimulated by the hope of gold as well as fame; for the defender of the faith was to be rewarded by a handsome fee. When better arguments failed, he had resort to insults, and even to oaths. {GC 183.3}

 

     
37  爱克兰帕底那种温和谦虚的精神,曾使他对参加辩论有些胆怯,所以他开始就作了严肃的声明说:“除了上帝的话以外,我不承认任何其他裁判的标准。”(注二十)他的态度虽然温和有礼,他却显明自己是练达而勇敢的。当罗马教的代表照着惯例提出教会的习惯为权威时,这位改革家却坚持以《圣经》为根据;说:“在我们瑞士国,习惯是不生效力的,除非这习惯合乎我们的宪法;如今既涉及信仰问题,则《圣经》就是我们的宪法。”(注二一)     Oecolampadius, modest and self-distrustful, had shrunk from the combat, and he entered upon it with the solemn avowal: "I acknowledge no other standard of judgment than the word of God."--Ibid., b. 11, ch. 13. Though gentle and courteous in demeanor, he proved himself able and unflinching. While the Romanists, according to their wont, appealed for authority to the customs of the church, the Reformer adhered steadfastly to the Holy Scriptures. "Custom," he said, "has no force in our Switzerland, unless it be according to the constitution; now, in matters of faith, the Bible is our constitution."--Ibid., b. 11, ch. 13.

 

     
38  双方代表的态度在比较之下,不是没有影响的。改革家用谦恭的态度所作稳健而清楚的辩论,打动了众人的心,使他们厌弃艾克以傲慢暴躁的态度所作的武断。     The contrast between the two disputants was not without effect. The calm, clear reasoning of the Reformer, so gently and modestly presented, appealed to minds that turned in disgust from Eck's boastful and boisterous assumptions. {GC 184.1}

 

     
39  辩论延续了十八天之久。结束的时候,罗马教的代表自鸣得意地宣告自己荣获胜利。大多数出席的代表偏袒了罗马教,所以议会宣布宗教改革家被驳倒了,并宣布开除他们和他们领袖萨文黎的教籍。但这次会议的最后结果,就显明胜利究竟属于何方了。这一次的辩论大大地振奋了改正教的工作,不久之后,那两座主要的城市百伦和巴登都声明拥护宗教改革的运动了。     The discussion continued eighteen days. At its close the papists with great confidence claimed the victory. Most of the deputies sided with Rome, and the Diet pronounced the Reformers vanquished and declared that they, together with Zwingli, their leader, were cut off from the church. But the fruits of the conference revealed on which side the advantage lay. The contest resulted in a strong impetus to the Protestant cause, and it was not long afterward that the important cities of Bern and Basel declared for the Reformation. {GC 184.2} 
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* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
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我们教会正学习这本书
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如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037
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* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037