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善恶之争

第十二章 法国的改革运动

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录

 

法国的改革运动
 
    The French Reformation
     
01  在那表显德国宗教改革运动之胜利的斯拜耳抗议书,和奥斯堡信仰声明书之后,接着就是多年的战争和黑暗。在支持这运动的人中间,内部的分裂削弱了它的力量,外面又受到强敌的攻击,以致改正教似乎注定要被完全消灭了。千万人用自己的血印证了他们所信的道。这时,内战爆发;新教的工作被内中的一个领导人物出卖了;以致信从新教的几个最高贵的王侯落到皇帝的手中,他们竟如俘虏一样,在各城里被拖来拖去。但在似乎已经胜利的一刹那间,皇帝却忽然失败了。他眼见着自己的俘虏从手中挣脱,结果他不得不准许宗教自由;他曾以扑灭新教为自己一生的抱负,他宁愿牺牲他的国度,财富,甚至自己的性命,来粉碎这个“异端”。如今却看到自己的军队在战争中损失殆尽,国库也渐渐枯竭,他国内的各邦又有背叛的危险,而他所妄想扑灭的信仰却到处扩展。查理第五曾与无所不能者作战。上帝说:“要有光,”而他却想保留黑暗。他的目的终于没有达到;他因长期挣扎而精疲力尽,未老先衰,于是放弃了宝座,在一个修道院里终老此生。     The Protest of Spires and the Confession at Augsburg, which marked the triumph of the Reformation in Germany, were followed by years of conflict and darkness. Weakened by divisions among its supporters, and assailed by powerful foes, Protestantism seemed destined to be utterly destroyed. Thousands sealed their testimony with their blood. Civil war broke out; the Protestant cause was betrayed by one of its leading adherents; the noblest of the reformed princes fell into the hands of the emperor and were dragged as captives from town to town. But in the moment of his apparent triumph, the emperor was smitten with defeat. He saw the prey wrested from his grasp, and he was forced at last to grant toleration to the doctrines which it had been the ambition of his life to destroy. He had staked his kingdom, his treasures, and life itself upon the crushing out of the heresy. Now he saw his armies wasted by battle, his treasuries drained, his many kingdoms threatened by revolt, while everywhere the faith which he had vainly endeavored to suppress, was extending. Charles V had been battling against omnipotent power. God had said, "Let there be light," but the emperor had sought to keep the darkness unbroken. His purposes had failed; and in premature old age, worn out with the long struggle, he abdicated the throne and buried himself in a cloister. {GC 211.1}
     
02  在瑞士也象在德国一样,改革运动临到了黑暗时期。虽然有许多县份接受了改革运动的信仰,但其他地区却盲目顽梗地固守着罗马的教条。他们对那些接受真理之人所施的逼迫,终于引起了内战。萨文黎和许多与他一同从事改革运动的人,都倒在卡帕尔血腥的战场之上了。爱克兰帕底被这些可怕的灾祸所压倒,不久便去世了。罗马踌躇满志,在许多地方都似乎要恢复所丧失的一切了。但那从亘古立定筹划的主没有丢弃他的工作,也没有离弃他的百姓。他的圣手必为他们施行拯救。他已经在其他国家兴起工人来推进改革运动。     In Switzerland, as in Germany, there came dark days for the Reformation. While many cantons accepted the reformed faith, others clung with blind persistence to the creed of Rome. Their persecution of those who desired to receive the truth finally gave rise to civil war. Zwingli and many who had united with him in reform fell on the bloody field of Cappel. Oecolampadius, overcome by these terrible disasters, soon after died. Rome was triumphant, and in many places seemed about to recover all that she had lost. But He whose counsels are from everlasting had not forsaken His cause or His people. His hand would bring deliverance for them. In other lands He had raised up laborers to carry forward the reform. {GC 211.2}
     
03  法国在尚未听到改革家路德的名字之前,就已现出曙光了。首先得见亮光的乃是年迈的李富黎,他学识渊博,曾任巴黎大学教授,又是一个真诚热心的罗马教徒。他在钻研古代文学的时候,渐渐注意到《圣经》,他便指导学生研究《圣经》。     In France, before the name of Luther had been heard as a Reformer, the day had already begun to break. One of the first to catch the light was the aged Lefevre, a man of extensive learning, a professor in the University of Paris, and a sincere and zealous papist. In his researches into ancient literature his attention was directed to the Bible, and he introduced its study among his students. {GC 212.1}
     
04  李富黎原是热诚敬拜古代圣徒的,他有意根据教会的传说,编著一部先圣和殉道者的历史,这种工作是要费不少时间和心血的;但到他已经有相当成就和进展的时候,他想或许能在《圣经》中找到资料,于是就本着这个目的开始研究《圣经》。他果然在《圣经》里找到有关圣徒的记录,但这些圣徒与罗马教在节期中所崇拜的圣徒大不相同。于是神圣的亮光忽然普照在他的心中。他就惊异而厌恶地放弃了自己计划的工作,专心去研究上帝的话了。过了不久,他就开始把在《圣经》中所发现的宝贵真理,教导别人。     Lefevre was an enthusiastic adorer of the saints, and he had undertaken to prepare a history of the saints and martyrs as given in the legends of the church. This was a work which involved great labor; but he had already made considerable progress in it, when, thinking that he might obtain useful assistance from the Bible, he began its study with this object. Here indeed he found saints brought to view, but not such as figured in the Roman calendar. A flood of divine light broke in upon his mind. In amazement and disgust he turned away from his self-appointed task and devoted himself to the word of God. The precious truths which he there discovered he soon began to teach. {GC 212.2}
     
05  一五一二年,即在路德,萨文黎开始改革工作之前,李富黎已经写道:“上帝因信赐给我们义,使我们得以靠恩典称义而得永生。”(注一)论到救赎的奥秘,他说:“此种变换的伟大确是言语所难以形容的,──那无罪的一位被定了罪,而有罪的人倒得了自由;有福的主受了咒诅,而该受咒诅的人倒蒙了福气;生命之君舍弃了生命,而必死的人倒得了生命;荣耀的王陷在黑暗之中,而无知蒙羞的人倒披上了光荣。”(注二)     In 1512, before either Luther or Zwingli had begun the work of reform, Lefevre wrote: "It is God who gives us, by faith, that righteousness which by grace alone justifies to eternal life."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 1. Dwelling upon the mysteries of redemption, he exclaimed: "Oh, the unspeakable greatness of that exchange,--the Sinless One is condemned, and he who is guilty goes free; the Blessing bears the curse, and the cursed is brought into blessing; the Life dies, and the dead live; the Glory is whelmed in darkness, and he who knew nothing but confusion of face is clothed with glory."-- D'Aubigne, London ed., b. 12, ch. 2. {GC 212.3}
     
06  他一面教导人救赎的功劳乃完全属于上帝,也一面声明顺从乃是人类的本分。他说:“若你是基督教会的一分子,则你就是他圣体的肢体;若你是他的肢体,则你就满有上帝的性情。……若世人能领会这种特权,则他们的生活该是何等纯洁,清高,圣善啊,此世的荣华若与他们内在的荣耀──肉眼所看不到的荣耀相比,那是何等地微不足道啊。”(注三)     And while teaching that the glory of salvation belongs solely to God, he also declared that the duty of obedience belongs to man. "If thou art a member of Christ's church," he said, "thou art a member of His body; if thou art of His body, then thou art full of the divine nature. . . . Oh, if men could but enter into the understanding of this privilege, how purely, chastely, and holily would they live, and how contemptible, when compared with the glory within them,-- that glory which the eye of flesh cannot see,--would they deem all the glory of this world."--Ibid., b. 12, ch. 2. {GC 213.1}
     
07  李富黎的学生之中有一些人很热切地听他的教训,他们在这位老师去世之后,便继续的宣扬真理。威廉法勒尔就是其中之一。他的父母是虔诚的教徒,他所受的教育使他以绝对的信心接受教会的训诲,以致他能象使徒保罗一样说:“按着我们教中最严紧的教门,作了法利赛人。”(徒26:5)法勒尔是一个忠实的罗马教徒,心中火热,要除灭一切胆敢反对教会的人。他后来提到自己这一段时期的人生观说:“当我听到任何人说话反对教皇时,我就咬牙切齿,如同一只狂怒的豺狼一般。”(注四)他曾不息不倦地敬拜古代圣徒,陪同李富黎遍游巴黎的各教堂,在祭坛前跪拜,献礼物装饰神龛。但这些礼节不能使他的心灵得到平安,自知有罪的感觉紧紧地环绕着他,尽管他怎样苦修,也无法摆脱这种感觉。后来他听到改革家的话说:“救赎乃是出于恩典。”“那一位无罪的被定了罪,罪人倒得蒙赦免。”“惟有基督的十字架能打开天国的门,关闭地狱的门。”(注五)这些话在他听来犹如从天上传来的声音一样。     There were some among Lefevre's students who listened eagerly to his words, and who, long after the teacher's voice should be silenced, were to continue to declare the truth. Such was William Farel. The son of pious parents, and educated to accept with implicit faith the teachings of the church, he might, with the apostle Paul, have declared concerning himself: "After the most straitest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee." Acts 26:5. A devoted Romanist, he burned with zeal to destroy all who should dare to oppose the church. "I would gnash my teeth like a furious wolf," he afterward said, referring to this period of his life, "when I heard anyone speaking against the pope."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 2. He had been untiring in his adoration of the saints, in company with Lefevre making the round of the churches of Paris, worshipping at the altars, and adorning with gifts the holy shrines. But these observances could not bring peace of soul. Conviction of sin fastened upon him, which all the acts of penance that he practiced failed to banish. As to a voice from heaven he listened to the Reformer's words: "Salvation is of grace." "The Innocent One is condemned, and the criminal is acquitted." "It is the cross of Christ alone that openeth the gates of heaven, and shutteth the gates of hell." --Ibid., b. 13, ch. 2. {GC 213.2}
     
08  法勒尔欣然接受了真理。他象保罗一样的悔改之后,便摆脱了遗传的束缚,得到了上帝儿子的自由。“他再没有残暴的豺狼嗜杀的心,却转变成安静的、温柔的、无害的羔羊,他的心已经从教皇那里收回而献给耶稣基督了。”(注六)     Farel joyfully accepted the truth. By a conversion like that of Paul he turned from the bondage of tradition to the liberty of the sons of God. "Instead of the murderous heart of a ravening wolf," he came back, he says, "quietly like a meek and harmless lamb, having his heart entirely withdrawn from the pope, and given to Jesus Christ."--D'Aubigne, b. 12, ch. 3. {GC 214.1}
     
09  当李富黎继续在学生中传布真光的时候,法勒尔则热心于基督的圣工,正如他从前热心于教皇的工作一样,出去公开宣传真理。不久,有一个教会的显要人物,摩城的主教与他携手同工。同时又有其他才能卓越,学问渊博的教师们参加传讲福音,于是各阶层,从工人和农民的家庭直到王宫,都有人信从了福音。当时的法国国王法兰西斯第一的姊妹也接受了宗教改革的信仰。连国王自己和太后也都一时表示赞成,所以改革家们怀着极大的希望预期法国终有信从福音的一日。     While Lefevre continued to spread the light among his students, Farel, as zealous in the cause of Christ as he had been in that of the pope, went forth to declare the truth in public. A dignitary of the church, the bishop of Meaux, soon after united with them. Other teachers who ranked high for their ability and learning joined in proclaiming the gospel, and it won adherents among all classes, from the homes of artisans and peasants to the palace of the king. The sister of Francis I, then the reigning monarch, accepted the reformed faith. The king himself, and the queen mother, appeared for a time to regard it with favor, and with high hopes the Reformers looked forward to the time when France should be won to the gospel. {GC 214.2} 
     
10  但是他们的希望未能实现,反而有试炼和逼迫等待着基督的门徒。虽然如此,上帝怜爱他们,不让他们预先看到这事。中间还有一段平安的时期,使他们能得到力量,以便应付那要临到的风暴;使改革运动有迅速的进展。摩城的主教在自己的教区中热心工作,教导他的教牧人员和一般平民。他撤换了无知和腐化的神父,而尽量任用有学识和敬虔的人。这位主教非常希望他的教徒能为自己而研究《圣经》,不久他的希望就实现了。李富黎已经下手翻译《新约圣经》;正当路德的德文《圣经》在威丁堡出版时,法文的《新约圣经》也在摩城印行了。主教不惜工本,在他的教区中努力推销,不久摩城的乡民也都得到了《圣经》。     But their hopes were not to be realized. Trial and persecution awaited the disciples of Christ. This, however, was mercifully veiled from their eyes. A time of peace intervened, that they might gain strength to meet the tempest; and the Reformation made rapid progress. The bishop of Meaux labored zealously in his own diocese to instruct both the clergy and the people. Ignorant and immoral priests were removed, and, so far as possible, replaced by men of learning and piety. The bishop greatly desired that his people might have access to the word of God for themselves, and this was soon accomplished. Lefevre undertook the translation of the New Testament; and at the very time when Luther's German Bible was issuing from the press in Wittenberg, the French New Testament was published at Meaux. The bishop spared no labor or expense to circulate it in his parishes, and soon the peasants of Meaux were in possession of the Holy Scriptures. {GC 214.3}
     
11  这些人欢迎上天的信息,正如干渴垂毙的行人欢迎活水的泉源一样。田地间的农夫,和工厂里的工人,都借着谈论《圣经》中的宝贵真理,来使自己每天辛劳的生活感觉愉快。入晚,他们不再到酒店去,而乃是彼此聚集在家中诵读《圣经》,并一同祈祷赞美上帝。不久,这些村镇中有了极大的改变。他们虽然是平凡,没有知识,并辛劳工作的乡民,但在他们的生活上可以看出上帝恩典改革人,提高人的能力。他们所有谦卑,仁爱和圣洁的美德,证明福音为一切真诚领受的人所能成就的大工。     As travelers perishing from thirst welcome with joy a living water spring, so did these souls receive the message of heaven. The laborers in the field, the artisans in the workshop, cheered their daily toil by talking of the precious truths of the Bible. At evening, instead of resorting to the wine-shops, they assembled in one another's homes to read God's word and join in prayer and praise. A great change was soon manifest in these communities. Though belonging to the humblest class, an unlearned and hard-working peasantry, the reforming, uplifting power of divine grace was seen in their lives. Humble, loving, and holy, they stood as witnesses to what the gospel will accomplish for those who receive it in sincerity. {GC 215.1}
     
12  在摩城所发出的真光照耀到远近各地。悔改的人数天天增加。教会当局的忿怒一时被那轻视僧侣狭隘偏见的国王所遏制;但罗马教会的领袖终于得了胜。因为炮烙之刑业已树起;摩城的主教在火刑和反悔之间二者必须选择其一的时候,竟拣选了那比较容易的道路,但是领袖虽然跌倒,他的羊群却仍然坚定不移。许多人在火焰中为真理作了见证。这些平凡的基督徒借着他们在炮烙柱上显示的勇敢和忠心,向千万在平安的日子永远没有听到福音的人,作了美好的见证。     The light kindled at Meaux shed its beams afar. Every day the number of converts was increasing. The rage of the hierarchy was for a time held in check by the king, who despised the narrow bigotry of the monks; but the papal leaders finally prevailed. Now the stake was set up. The bishop of Meaux, forced to choose between the fire and recantation, accepted the easier path; but notwithstanding the leader's fall, his flock remained steadfast. Many witnessed for the truth amid the flames. By their courage and fidelity at the stake, these humble Christians spoke to thousands who in days of peace had never heard their testimony. {GC 215.2}
     
13  那在痛苦和侮辱之中胆敢为基督作见证的,不单是一些卑微和贫穷的人。就是在贵族的宅第中,也有高贵的人们视真理比财富,地位,甚至于性命更为宝贵。在王家的贵胄中竟有人表现了比主教更坚定的品质。柏昆路易出身贵族,是一个勇敢风雅的爵士,埋头书卷,举止大方,品行端正。有一位著作家说:“他忠心拥护罗马教的种种制度,热心参赴弥撒和宗教聚会;……在他所具有的一切美德之外,他还特别憎恨路德教派。”但后来他象许多别人一样,受上帝引领去研究《圣经》,便非常惊异地发现其中“并没有罗马教的道理,反而是路德的道理。”(注七)从此以后,他就全心献身从事福音的工作了。     It was not alone the humble and the poor that amid suffering and scorn dared to bear witness for Christ. In the lordly halls of the castle and the palace there were kingly souls by whom truth was valued above wealth or rank or even life. Kingly armor concealed a loftier and more steadfast spirit than did the bishop's robe and miter. Louis de Berquin was of noble birth. A brave and courtly knight, he was devoted to study, polished in manners, and of blameless morals. "He was," says a writer, "a great follower of the papistical constitutions, and a great hearer of masses and sermons; . . . and he crowned all his other virtues by holding Lutheranism in special abhorrence." But, like so many others, providentially guided to the Bible, he was amazed to find there, "not the doctrines of Rome, but the doctrines of Luther."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 9. Henceforth he gave himself with entire devotion to the cause of the gospel. {GC 215.3}
     
14  “他是法国贵族中最有学问的一个人,”他的天资和口才,他的不屈不挠的勇敢和沉毅果敢的热诚,以及他在宫廷中的影响,──因为他是王所宠爱的人──使许多人认为他是命定作他本国改革家的。著作家俾扎说:“法兰西斯第一若是象撒克逊选侯一样,柏昆就可以成为第二个路德了。”罗马教徒说:“他比路德更坏。”法国的罗马教徒实在惧怕他比惧怕路德更甚。他们把他当作叛教徒囚在监牢里,可是王把他释放了。这种相争继续了多年。法兰西斯总是在罗马教和改革家之间举棋不定,反复无常,他有时容忍,有时遏制修道士们的狂怒。柏昆三次被罗马教当局监禁起来,但国王钦佩他的天才和他高尚的品德,不肯让他牺牲在修道士团体的毒手之下,故而把他释放了。     "The most learned of the nobles of France," his genius and eloquence, his indomitable courage and heroic zeal, and his influence at court,--for he was a favorite with the king,-- caused him to be regarded by many as one destined to be the Reformer of his country. Said Beza: "Berquin would have been a second Luther, had he found in Francis I a second elector." "He is worse than Luther," cried the papists.--Ibid., b. 13, ch. 9. More dreaded he was indeed by the Romanists of France. They thrust him into prison as a heretic, but he was set at liberty by the king. For years the struggle continued. Francis, wavering between Rome and the Reformation, alternately tolerated and restrained the fierce zeal of the monks. Berquin was three times imprisoned by the papal authorities, only to be released by the monarch, who, in admiration of his genius and his nobility of character, refused to sacrifice him to the malice of the hierarchy. {GC 216.1}
     
15  常有人把柏昆在法国所有的危险警告他,并恳劝他学别人的榜样,自动流亡在外,以求安全。当时有一个畏首畏尾的机会主义者伊拉斯莫斯,他虽有卓越的学识,却未能重视真理过于自己的性命和名誉,他写信给柏昆说:“你还是要求王派你出使外国吧;你到德国去游历一番也好。你知道象比大和他这样的人──他是一个三头六臂的猛兽,到处施用他的毒手。你的仇敌名字叫做‘群’。即或你们的事业比耶稣基督的更伟大,他们还是不会放你过去的,直到他们把你悲惨地消灭了为止。不要太相信国王的保护了。无论如何,不要在神学教师面前连累到我。”(注八)     Berquin was repeatedly warned of the danger that threatened him in France, and urged to follow the steps of those who had found safety in voluntary exile. The timid and time-serving Erasmus, who with all the splendor of his scholarship failed of that moral greatness which holds life and honor subservient to truth, wrote to Berquin: "Ask to be sent as ambassador to some foreign country; go and travel in Germany. You know Beda and such as he--he is a thousand-headed monster, darting venom on every side. Your enemies are named legion. Were your cause better than that of Jesus Christ, they will not let you go till they have miserably destroyed you. Do not trust too much to the king's protection. At all events, do not compromise me with the faculty of theology."--Ibid., b. 13, ch. 9. {GC 216.2}
     
16  但当危险加深的时候,柏昆的热诚反而越发加强。他不但不采纳伊拉斯莫斯的投机和专顾自己的建议,反而断然取了更勇敢的步骤。他不但要维护真理,而且还要攻击谬论。罗马教徒所想要加在他头上“异端”的罪名,他要转过来加在他们头上。他最活跃的死敌乃是巴黎大学神学院的博士和修道士,该神学院乃是巴黎和法国一个最高的宗教权威。柏昆从这些博士的著作中找出十二项意见,并公开地称之为“违反《圣经》的异端;”他请国王作他们辩论的裁判。     But as dangers thickened, Berquin's zeal only waxed the stronger. So far from adopting the politic and self-serving counsel of Erasmus, he determined upon still bolder measures. He would not only stand in defense of the truth, but he would attack error. The charge of heresy which the Romanists were seeking to fasten upon him, he would rivet upon them. The most active and bitter of his opponents were the learned doctors and monks of the theological department in the great University of Paris, one of the highest ecclesiastical authorities both in the city and the nation. From the writings of these doctors, Berquin drew twelve propositions which he publicly declared to be "opposed to the Bible, and heretical;" and he appealed to the king to act as judge in the controversy. {GC 216.3}
     
17  王甚愿把双方的能力和敏捷作一次比较,并喜欢有一个机会,以挫折这些傲慢修道士的气焰,就命令罗马教徒用《圣经》来证实自己的主张。他们深知《圣经》这个武器对他们是没有多大用处的;监禁,酷刑,火柱,是他们更善于运用的武器。这时局势转变了,他们看出自己将要陷入他们本来希望柏昆陷入的深坑。于是他们惊慌的四顾,想找一条出路。     The monarch, not loath to bring into contrast the power and acuteness of the opposing champions, and glad of an opportunity of humbling the pride of these haughty monks, bade the Romanists defend their cause by the Bible. This weapon, they well knew, would avail them little; imprisonment, torture, and the stake were arms which they better understood how to wield. Now the tables were turned, and they saw themselves about to fall into the pit into which they had hoped to plunge Berquin. In amazement they looked about them for some way of escape. {GC 217.1}
     
18  “正在那时,巴黎一个街口的童贞女马利亚神像被人损坏了。”全城大大骚动起来。无数的人拥到那里,莫不悲愤填膺。王也深为感动。这是修道士们正好利用的机会,他们也就迅速地利用了。他们说:“这就是柏昆所传之道的结果。一切──宗教,法律,连王位──将要被路德派的阴谋所推翻了。”(注九)     "Just at that time an image of the Virgin at the corner of one of the streets, was mutilated." There was great excitement in the city. Crowds of people flocked to the place, with expressions of mourning and indignation. The king also was deeply moved. Here was an advantage which the monks could turn to good account, and they were quick to improve it. "These are the fruits of the doctrines of Berquin," they cried. "All is about to be overthrown--religion, the laws, the throne itself--by this Lutheran conspiracy."--Ibid., b. 13, ch. 9. {GC 217.2}
     
19  柏昆又被逮捕了。王自巴黎引退,这样僧侣们就可以为所欲为了。于是改革家被公审,被定死罪,他们惟恐法兰西斯还要出来救他,所以一宣布了柏昆的罪案之后,当天就予以执行。柏昆在中午被带到刑场。无数的人聚集来观看这件大事,许多人看见这次遇害的是竟是法国贵族中最优秀,最勇敢的人物,不胜惊奇,疑惧不安。在这人山人海之中,人们的脸色都因惊异,愤怒,轻侮,和毒恨而罩上了一层阴沉的暗影;惟独一人容光焕发。这个殉道者的思想一点也没有顾到这骚乱的景象;他只觉自己有他的主与他同在而已。     Again Berquin was apprehended. The king withdrew from Paris, and the monks were thus left free to work their will. The Reformer was tried and condemned to die, and lest Francis should even yet interpose to save him, the sentence was executed on the very day it was pronounced. At noon Berquin was conducted to the place of death. An immense throng gathered to witness the event, and there were many who saw with astonishment and misgiving that the victim had been chosen from the best and bravest of the noble families of France. Amazement, indignation, scorn, and bitter hatred darkened the faces of that surging crowd; but upon one face no shadow rested. The martyr's thoughts were far from that scene of tumult; he was conscious only of the presence of his Lord. {GC 217.3}
     
20  他所坐的死刑囚犯护送车,逼迫他之人的横眉怒目的神色,以及他所要遭受的可怕死刑──这一切他都毫不在意,那曾死过,现在又活了,直活到永永远远,并且拿着死亡和阴间的钥匙的主,这时正在他的旁边。柏昆的脸上焕发着上天的荣光和平安。他穿着华丽的衣服,“丝绒的外套,织锦缎的上衣,和金色的袜子。(注十)他将要在万王之王和全宇宙之前,为他的信仰作见证,所以不应当有一点悲哀的表情来中伤他的喜乐。     The wretched tumbrel upon which he rode, the frowning faces of his persecutors, the dreadful death to which he was going--these he heeded not; He who liveth and was dead, and is alive for evermore, and hath the keys of death and of hell, was beside him. Berquin's countenance was radiant with the light and peace of heaven. He had attired himself in goodly raiment, wearing "a cloak of velvet, a doublet of satin and damask, and golden hose."--D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, b. 2, ch. 16. He was about to testify to his faith in the presence of the King of kings and the witnessing universe, and no token of mourning should belie his joy. {GC 218.1}
     
21  当这行列缓缓地在拥挤的街道上经过时,众人很惊异地留意到他脸色和态度上所显出的平安和充足的喜乐。他们说:“他象一个人坐在圣殿中,默想圣洁的事。”(注十一)     As the procession moved slowly through the crowded streets, the people marked with wonder the unclouded peace, and joyous triumph, of his look and bearing. "He is," they said, "like one who sits in a temple, and meditates on holy things."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 9. {GC 218.2}
     
22  柏昆在受火刑之时想要对民众说几句话,但修道士们怕他说话发生影响,就开始呼喊喧嚷,兵士也用他们的兵器相击作声,他们的喧嚣就淹没了殉道者的声音。这样,在一五二九年,巴黎城文学和宗教方面的最高权威,“竟为一七九三年的平民立了一个卑鄙的榜样,在刑场上窒息了垂死之人所要讲的最后一句话。”(注十二)     At the stake, Berquin endeavored to address a few words to the people; but the monks, fearing the result, began to shout, and the soldiers to clash their arms, and their clamor drowned the martyr's voice. Thus in 1529 the highest literary and ecclesiastical authority of cultured Paris "set the populace of 1793 the base example of stifling on the scaffold the sacred words of the dying."--Ibid., b, 13, ch. 9. {GC 218.3}
     
23  柏昆被绞死之后,遗体就在火焰中烧尽了。他的死耗使法国各地改革运动的友人至为悲伤。但他的榜样是很有影响的。其他为真理作见证的人说;“我们也准备愉快地应付死亡,把我们的眼睛集中在将来的生命上。”(注十三)     Berquin was strangled, and his body was consumed in the flames. The tidings of his death caused sorrow to the friends of the Reformation throughout France. But his example was not lost. "We, too, are ready," said the witnesses for the truth, "to meet death cheerfully, setting our eyes on the life that is to come."--D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, b. 2, ch. 16. {GC 218.4}
     
24  在摩城遭受逼迫的时期,传讲改革信仰的教师被剥夺了讲道的权力,于是他们就转向其他的地方去了。过了一些时候,李富黎到了德国。法勒尔则到法国东部他的故乡去,在他儿时的家乡传布真光。那里早已接到摩城所发生之事的消息,因此他以无畏的热诚所教导的真理,赢得了许多听众。不久地方当局起来,禁止他宣讲,就把他驱逐出城。此后他虽然不能公开作工,但他遍行各地和乡村,在私人的住宅和偏僻的牧场上教训人,并在他儿时屡次来往的森林或岩穴中安身。这时,上帝正在预备他应付更大的试炼。他说:“撒但的拦阻,逼迫和暗算,就是别人所预先警戒我提防的,真是不少;它们比我自己所能忍受的厉害多了。但上帝是我的父;他已经而且必要为我预备所需要的力量。”(注十四)     During the persecution of Meaux, the teachers of the reformed faith were deprived of their license to preach, and they departed to other fields. Lefevre after a time made his way to Germany. Farel returned to his native town in eastern France, to spread the light in the home of his childhood. Already tidings had been received of what was going on at Meaux, and the truth, which he taught with fearless zeal, found listeners. Soon the authorities were roused to silence him, and he was banished from the city. Though he could no longer labor publicly, he traversed the plains and villages, teaching in private dwellings and in secluded meadows, and finding shelter in the forests and among the rocky caverns which had been his haunts in boyhood. God was preparing him for greater trials. "The crosses, persecutions, and machinations of Satan, of which I was forewarned, have not been wanting," he said; "they are even much severer than I could have borne of myself; but God is my Father; He has provided and always will provide me the strength which I require."--D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, b. 12, ch. 9. {GC 219.1}
     
25  正如使徒时代一样,逼迫“更是叫福音兴旺。”(腓1:12)从巴黎和摩城被驱逐出来的“那些分散的人,往各处去传道。”(徒8:4)这样真光就传到法国许多遥远的省份了。     As in apostolic days, persecution had "fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the gospel." Philippians 1:12. Driven from Paris and Meaux, "they that were scattered abroad went everywhere preaching the word." Acts 8:4. And thus the light found its way into many of the remote provinces of France. {GC 219.2}
     
26  上帝还在准备更多的工人来推进他的圣工。在巴黎的一所学校里,有一个沉思恬静的青年已显明他的智力很强,心思很透彻,而且他生活的纯洁正如他心智上的热力和宗教上的虔诚一样著称。他的天才和好学不倦,不久使学校因他倍觉光荣,大家都确信约翰喀尔文要成为教会最有才能,最有声望的捍卫者。但是有一线神圣的光辉射进了那包围着喀尔文的烦琐哲学和迷信的墙垣。他听见这新的道理之后,便甚是惊异,憎恨,并确认这些叛教徒遭受火刑是应该的。孰料有一天他在无意之中与“异端”面面相对,而被迫来试用罗马神学的力量以对抗改正教的教训。     God was still preparing workers to extend His cause. In one of the schools of Paris was a thoughtful, quiet youth, already giving evidence of a powerful and penetrating mind, and no less marked for the blamelessness of his life than for intellectual ardor and religious devotion. His genius and application soon made him the pride of the college, and it was confidently anticipated that John Calvin would become one of the ablest and most honored defenders of the church. But a ray of divine light penetrated even within the walls of scholasticism and superstition by which Calvin was enclosed. He heard of the new doctrines with a shudder, nothing doubting that the heretics deserved the fire to which they were given. Yet all unwittingly he was brought face to face with the heresy and forced to test the power of Romish theology to combat the Protestant teaching. {GC 219.3}
     
27  喀尔文有一个参加改革运动中的表弟兄这时正在巴黎,这两个表弟兄时常见面,并在一起谈论那搅扰当时基督教界的问题。新教徒奥力维坦说:“世界上只有两种宗教;一种是人所发明的,都是叫人靠着遵守礼节和善行来拯救自己;另一种是在《圣经》里所显明的宗教,是教训人单单信仰上帝所白白赐给的恩典而得救。”     A cousin of Calvin's, who had joined the Reformers, was in Paris. The two kinsmen often met and discussed together the matters that were disturbing Christendom. "There are but two religions in the world," said Olivetan, the Protestant. "The one class of religions are those which men have invented, in all of which man saves himself by ceremonies and good works; the other is that one religion which is revealed in the Bible, and which teaches man to look for salvation solely from the free grace of God." {GC 220.1}
     
28  喀尔文说:“我不要你的新道理,你想我信道信了这么些年一直是信错了么?”(注十五)     "I will have none of your new doctrines," exclaimed Calvin; "think you that I have lived in error all my days?" --Wylie, b. 13, ch. 7. {GC 220.2}
     
29  但他心中已经因此而起了种种思潮,是他所不能任意磨灭的。他独自在房中思考他表兄弟的话。自知有罪的感觉紧紧地逼着他,他看出自己在一位圣洁公义的审判者面前并没有一位中保。圣徒的代求,自己的善行,教会的礼节,都不足以赎他的罪。他在自己面前除了永远绝望的黑暗之外,再也看不见别的东西。教会内的学者们想要解除他的悲哀,也是徒然。他试用认罪和苦修的方法,也没有果效;这一切都不能使他的心灵与上帝和好。     But thoughts had been awakened in his mind which he could not banish at will. Alone in his chamber he pondered upon his cousin's words. Conviction of sin fastened upon him; he saw himself, without an intercessor, in the presence of a holy and just Judge. The mediation of saints, good works, the ceremonies of the church, all were powerless to atone for sin. He could see before him nothing but the blackness of eternal despair. In vain the doctors of the church endeavored to relieve his woe. Confession, penance, were resorted to in vain; they could not reconcile the soul with God. {GC 220.3}
     
30  当喀尔文正在从事这些徒劳无益的挣扎时,偶尔有一天他经过一个广场,看见那里正在焚烧一个“叛教徒”,他看到那殉道者的脸上所表现的平安,心中甚是惊异。那人虽在可怕之死的惨痛中,并受着教会最可怕的制裁,还能表显信心和勇敢;而这青年的学生喀尔文自己虽然严紧地顺从教会的规条,却落在失望与黑暗之中;二人的情况相形之下,使他不胜悲苦。他知道这些“叛教徒”的信仰是以《圣经》为根据的。于是他决意要研究《圣经》,如果可能,他要发现他们喜乐的秘诀。     While still engaged in these fruitless struggles, Calvin, chancing one day to visit one of the public squares, witnessed there the burning of a heretic. He was filled with wonder at the expression of peace which rested upon the martyr's countenance. Amid the tortures of that dreadful death, and under the more terrible condemnation of the church, he manifested a faith and courage which the young student painfully contrasted with his own despair and darkness, while living in strictest obedience to the church. Upon the Bible, he knew, the heretics rested their faith. He determined to study it, and discover, if he could, the secret of their joy. {GC 220.4}
     
30  他在《圣经》中找到了基督。他喊着说,“天父啊,他的牺牲已经平息了你的怒气;他的宝血已经洗净了我的不洁;他的十架已经担负了我的咒诅;他的舍命已经救赎了我。我们曾经为自己发明了许多无益的愚妄之事,但你已经把你的道放在我面前,如同火炬一样,而且你已经感动我的心,使我除了耶稣的功劳之外,便鄙视一切其他的功劳。”(注十六)     In the Bible he found Christ. "O Father," he cried, "His sacrifice has appeased Thy wrath; His blood has washed away my impurities; His cross has borne my curse; His death has atoned for me. We had devised for ourselves many useless follies, but Thou hast placed Thy word before me like a torch, and Thou hast touched my heart, in order that I may hold in abomination all other merits save those of Jesus." --Martyn, vol. 3, ch. 13. {GC 221.1}

 

     
31  喀尔文过去所受的教育乃是预备将来作神父的。当他刚满十二岁的时候,就已被派为一个小教会的牧师,那时主教按照教会的规条已经为他剃了头。他固然没有受过正式任命,也没有担任神父的工作,但他却是教牧人员的分子,有职任的称号,并收受相当的酬金。     Calvin had been educated for the priesthood. When only twelve years of age he had been appointed to the chaplaincy of a small church, and his head had been shorn by the bishop in accordance with the canon of the church. He did not receive consecration, nor did he fulfill the duties of a priest, but he became a member of the clergy, holding the title of his office, and receiving an allowance in consideration thereof. {GC 221.2}

 

     
32  这时,他感觉自己不能作一个神父,他曾一度去学习法律,可是终于放弃这个宗旨,而决定终身从事福音的工作。但他不敢作一个公众的教师。因为他秉性怯懦,并认为这种工作的责任重大,担当不起,所以他愿意仍旧专心从事研究的工作。虽然如此,他朋友们的恳劝终于赢得他的同意。他说:“一个出身这样微贱的人,竟能被抬到那么崇高的地位,真是奇妙之极。”(注十七)     Now, feeling that he could never become a priest, he turned for a time to the study of law, but finally abandoned this purpose and determined to devote his life to the gospel. But he hesitated to become a public teacher. He was naturally timid, and was burdened with a sense of the weighty responsibility of the position, and he desired still to devote himself to study. The earnest entreaties of his friends, however, at last won his consent. "Wonderful it is," he said, "that one of so lowly an origin should be exalted to so great a dignity."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 9. {GC 221.3}

 

     
33  喀尔文很宁静地开始了他的工作,他的话有如甘露之滋润土地。这时他已离开巴黎,到一个省城去在马加勒特公主保护之下工作,公主爱福音,愿意保护福音的信徒。喀尔文这时还是一个态度温和,谦虚自抑的青年。他开始在人们家中工作,向聚集的家人诵读《圣经》,阐明救恩的真理。那些听见这信息的人把这佳音传给别人,不久,这真理的教师就转向遥远的城镇和村庄去了。无论宫室或茅屋,他都能进去,他就这样进行他的工作,奠定了多处教会的根基,后来从这些教会中出了许多为真理作无畏见证的的人。     Quietly did Calvin enter upon his work, and his words were as the dew falling to refresh the earth. He had left Paris, and was now in a provincial town under the protection of the princess Margaret, who, loving the gospel, extended her protection to its disciples. Calvin was still a youth, of gentle, unpretentious bearing. His work began with the people at their homes. Surrounded by the members of the household, he read the Bible and opened the truths of salvation. Those who heard the message carried the good news to others, and soon the teacher passed beyond the city to the outlying towns and hamlets. To both the castle and the cabin he found entrance, and he went forward, laying the foundation of churches that were to yield fearless witnesses for the truth. {GC 221.4}
     
34  过了几个月,他又到巴黎来了。那时,在学界中起了一次非常的骚动。古代语文的研究曾使人注意到《圣经》,而一些内心还没有受到真理感化的人,倒热心地讨论《圣经》,甚至于向维护罗马教的人挑战。喀尔文虽然是当地神学辩论的抗辩家,但他有一种比这些烦琐哲学家的喧嚷更高超的使命。当时人心都已被激动起来,所以那正是向他们阐明真理的机会。正当大学的演讲厅中充满了神学辩论的喧嚣时,喀尔文却挨家挨户向人打开《圣经》,讲论基督,和他的被钉十字架。     A few months and he was again in Paris. There was unwonted agitation in the circle of learned men and scholars. The study of the ancient languages had led men to the Bible, and many whose hearts were untouched by its truths were eagerly discussing them and even giving battle to the champions of Romanism. Calvin, though an able combatant in the fields of theological controversy, had a higher mission to accomplish than that of these noisy schoolmen. The minds of men were stirred, and now was the time to open to them the truth. While the halls of the universities were filled with the clamor of theological disputation, Calvin was making his way from house to house, opening the Bible to the people, and speaking to them of Christ and Him crucified. {GC 222.1}
     
35  由于上帝的安排,巴黎人还要再蒙一次接受福音的邀请。李富黎和法勒尔所发的呼召虽然都遭拒绝了,但在这个伟大的首都,各界人士还要再听到福音的信息。法国国王因考虑到政治的关系,还没有完全偏袒罗马教,反对改革运动。而公主马加勒特则仍抱新教在法国胜利的希望。她决意要在巴黎宣讲改革的信仰。在国王离开首都的期间,她叫一个新教的宣教士在巴黎的各教堂里讲道。但罗马教的权贵们禁止这事,于是公主打开了王宫的门,将宫内的一间房子修作会堂,并发出通告,每天在指定的时间讲道,欢迎各界人士前来参加。于是众人蜂拥前来。不但会堂,连一切的接待室和走廊都挤满了人。每天有成千的人──贵族,政治家,律法师,商人,工匠──前来赴会。后来王不但没有禁止这些聚会,反而命令巴黎城的两个教堂必须开放。该城从来没有受过上帝之话那么大的感动。那时似乎有从天而来之生命的灵吹在众人身上。节制,纯洁,秩序和勤劳,一变而代替了从前的醉酒,淫荡,纷争和怠惰了。     In God's providence, Paris was to receive another invitation to accept the gospel. The call of Lefevre and Farel had been rejected, but again the message was to be heard by all classes in that great capital. The king, influenced by political considerations, had not yet fully sided with Rome against the Reformation. Margaret still clung to the hope that Protestantism was to triumph in France. She resolved that the reformed faith should be preached in Paris. During the absence of the king, she ordered a Protestant minister to preach in the churches of the city. This being forbidden by the papal dignitaries, the princess threw open the palace. An apartment was fitted up as a chapel, and it was announced that every day, at a specified hour, a sermon would be preached, and the people of every rank and station were invited to attend. Crowds flocked to the service. Not only the chapel, but the antechambers and halls were thronged. Thousands every day assembled--nobles, statesmen, lawyers, merchants, and artisans. The king, instead of forbidding the assemblies, ordered that two of the churches of Paris should be opened. Never before had the city been so moved by the word of God. The spirit of life from heaven seemed to be breathed upon the people. Temperance, purity, order, and industry were taking the place of drunkenness, licentiousness, strife, and idleness. {GC 222.2}
     
36  但当时罗马教会当局并不是闲懒着的。王仍然不肯出面干涉,勒令改革家停止讲道,他们就转向一般平民进行煽惑,他们不惜以任何手段,设法引起无知和迷信群众的惧怕、偏见和狂热。巴黎人盲目地屈从了罗马教虚伪的教师,正如古代的耶路撒冷人一样,竟不知道眷顾她的时候,也不知道关系她平安的事。上帝的道在京都宣讲了足有二年之久,虽然有许多人接受了福音,但大多数人还是拒绝。法兰西斯之所以准许宗教自由不过是为了表示宽大,为要达到自私的目的,所以后来罗马教又占了上风。于是教堂又被封闭起来,火刑的柱子又竖立起来了。     But the hierarchy were not idle. The king still refused to interfere to stop the preaching, and they turned to the populace. No means were spared to excite the fears, the prejudices, and the fanaticism of the ignorant and superstitious multitude. Yielding blindly to her false teachers, Paris, like Jerusalem of old, knew not the time of her visitation nor the things which belonged unto her peace. For two years the word of God was preached in the capital; but, while there were many who accepted the gospel, the majority of the people rejected it. Francis had made a show of toleration, merely to serve his own purposes, and the papists succeeded in regaining the ascendancy. Again the churches were closed, and the stake was set up. {GC 223.1}
     
37  这时喀尔文仍在巴黎,借研究,默想和祈祷,准备应付将来的工作,并继续传布真光。虽然如此,当局终于怀疑了他,并决定处以火刑。有一天正当喀尔文认为自己在退隐中甚为安全,想不到有任何危险时,他的朋友急忙赶到他房中告诉他,法警已在路上来逮捕他了。这时大门外已有人高声敲门。时机非常的紧急。有几个朋友在大门口稽留着法警,别的朋友就帮助喀尔文,把他从窗户缒下去,他就赶紧逃到郊外去了。他在一个赞助改革运动的工人的茅舍中躲避了一时,后来穿上了这工人的衣服,扛着锄头,起身上路。他向南行去,到了马加勒特的辖境内,再度得到他的保护。“(注十八)     Calvin was still in Paris, preparing himself by study, meditation, and prayer for his future labors, and continuing to spread the light. At last, however, suspicion fastened upon him. The authorities determined to bring him to the flames. Regarding himself as secure in his seclusion, he had no thought of danger, when friends came hurrying to his room with the news that officers were on their way to arrest him. At that instant a loud knocking was heard at the outer entrance. There was not a moment to be lost. Some of his friends detained the officers at the door, while others assisted the Reformer to let himself down from a window, and he rapidly made his way to the outskirts of the city. Finding shelter in the cottage of a laborer who was a friend to the reform, he disguised himself in the garments of his host, and, shouldering a hoe, started on his journey. Traveling southward, he again found refuge in the dominions of Margaret. (See D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, b. 2, ch. 30.) {GC 223.2}
     
38  他在这里停留了几个月,在他有权势的友人保护之下安全无恙,他象从前一样专心从事研究的工作。但他一心想使法国受福音的教化,所以他不能长此毫无活动。一到这次的风暴稍为平静,他就在波亚垒找到一片新的工作园地,那里有一所大学,该地的人对于新教的道理也表示欢迎。结果各阶层的人都欣然聆听福音。喀尔文在那里没有公开宣讲,只是在该城首长的家中,或在他自己的寓所内,有时候在公园里,向那些愿意聆听的人打开永生之道。过了一时,听众的数目增多起来了,他们便认为在城外聚会较为安全。于是他们在深幽的峡谷旁边的一个山洞中,找到一个聚集之所,那里有大树和悬崖隐蔽着,使这个隐僻之处更为幽静而稳妥。一小群一小群的人由不同的路线出城到那里聚集。在这偏僻的地点诵读并解释了《圣经》。法国的新教徒在这里举行了第一次的圣餐礼。后来竟有几个忠心的传道人从这个小教会被派出去传道了。     Here for a few months he remained, safe under the protection of powerful friends, and engaged as before in study. But his heart was set upon the evangelization of France, and he could not long remain inactive. As soon as the storm had somewhat abated, he sought a new field of labor in Poitiers, where was a university, and where already the new opinions had found favor. Persons of all classes gladly listened to the gospel. There was no public preaching, but in the home of the chief magistrate, in his own lodgings, and sometimes in a public garden, Calvin opened the words of eternal life to those who desired to listen. After a time, as the number of hearers increased, it was thought safer to assemble outside the city. A cave in the side of a deep and narrow gorge, where trees and overhanging rocks made the seclusion still more complete, was chosen as the place of meeting. Little companies, leaving the city by different routes, found their way hither. In this retired spot the Bible was read aloud and explained. Here the Lord's Supper was celebrated for the first time by the Protestants of France. From this little church several faithful evangelists were sent out. {GC 224.1}
     
39  随后,喀尔文又回到巴黎一次。直到这时,他仍然不能放弃法国终必接受改革运动的希望。但他发现几乎每一个工作的门户都已关闭。若要传福音的道理,就等于一直向火刑柱走去,于是他决定到德国去。他一离开法国,逼迫新教的狂风骤起,如果他那时仍留在巴黎,他势必在那一次大屠杀中牺牲了。     Once more Calvin returned to Paris. He could not even yet relinquish the hope that France as a nation would accept the Reformation. But he found almost every door of labor closed. To teach the gospel was to take the direct road to the stake, and he at last determined to depart to Germany. Scarcely had he left France when a storm burst over the Protestants, that, had he remained, must surely have involved him in the general ruin. {GC 224.2}
     
40  法国的改革家热望他们本国与德国和瑞士的同道取相同的步调,随即决定向罗马教的迷信作一次勇敢的打击,来唤醒全国的人。于是在一夜之间,法国各地贴满了攻击弥撒祭的标语。这一个狂热而不智的举动,不但没有推进工作,反而使全法国改革运动的传道人和赞助者遭到毁灭。这个举动使罗马教徒达到素愿,给他们一个借口,说“叛教徒”是危害王朝并扰乱国家的,故主张把他们全然除灭。     The French Reformers, eager to see their country keeping pace with Germany and Switzerland, determined to strike a bold blow against the superstitions of Rome, that should arouse the whole nation. Accordingly placards attacking the mass were in one night posted all over France. Instead of advancing the reform, this zealous but ill-judged movement brought ruin, not only upon its propagators, but upon the friends of the reformed faith throughout France. It gave the Romanists what they had long desired--a pretext for demanding the utter destruction of the heretics as agitators dangerous to the stability of the throne and the peace of the nation. {GC 224.3}
     
41  借着一个秘密的手──是一位不智的朋友或是狡猾的仇敌,无人知道──有一张标语竟张贴在国王燕居的门上。王一见,便惊恐万状。在这一张标语上,历来受人崇敬的迷信受到了无情的抨击。而人竟敢将这些露骨而惊人的宣传,冒然张贴在宫廷之内,这事使王大发烈怒。他在震惊之余,一时立在门前,战栗恐慌,一言不发。随后他用以下可怕的话语发泄他的忿怒,说:“凡有依附路德教派之嫌疑的,一概予以逮捕。我要把他们完全消灭。”(注十九)事情就此决定。王已决心要完全站在罗马的一边了。     By some secret hand--whether of indiscreet friend or wily foe was never known--one of the placards was attached to the door of the king's private chamber. The monarch was filled with horror. In this paper, superstitions that had received the veneration of ages were attacked with an unsparing hand. And the unexampled boldness of obtruding these plain and startling utterances into the royal presence aroused the wrath of the king. In his amazement he stood for a little time trembling and speechless. Then his rage found utterance in the terrible words: "Let all be seized without distinction who are suspected of Lutheresy. I will exterminate them all.--Ibid., b. 4, ch. 10. The die was cast. The king had determined to throw himself fully on the side of Rome. {GC 225.1}
     
42  于是当局立刻采取措施,去捉拿巴黎城内一切路德教派的人。他们先逮捕了一个贫穷的工匠,他是信服改革信仰的,并曾负责招集信徒到他们秘密聚会的地方。罗马教廷的使者威胁他,要他领他们到城内每一个新教徒的家中,不然,就立时把他烧死。对于这个卑鄙的建议,他起先惊慌退缩,不敢答应,但终于被火刑所慑服,同意作卖主卖友的人。皇家的侦探摩林同着这一个卖友的人缓步行去,经过城内的一切街道,后面跟着一大队神父,提香炉的人,修道士和兵士。这种外表上的虚张声势,说是尊敬“圣体”,为要洗雪新教徒所加在弥撒上的侮辱。其实在这外表的炫耀之下,却隐藏着一个毒计。每当他们来到一个路德教派的人的房子时,那卖友之人不必说话,只要作一个暗号,行列就停下了;随即有人进入那家,把全家拉出,捆锁起来;然后这一队可怕的凶神便继续地前行,去寻索其他为道牺牲者了。他们“没有越过一家人家,无论大小,连巴黎大学也没有放过。……摩林使全城都震动起来了。……这真是一个恐怖的统治。”(注二十)     Measures were at once taken for the arrest of every Lutheran in Paris. A poor artisan, an adherent of the reformed faith, who had been accustomed to summon the believers to their secret assemblies, was seized and, with the threat of instant death at the stake, was commanded to conduct the papal emissary to the home of every Protestant in the city. He shrank in horror from the base proposal, but at last fear of the flames prevailed, and he consented to become the betrayer of his brethren. Preceded by the host, and surrounded by a train of priests, incense bearers, monks, and soldiers, Morin, the royal detective, with the traitor, slowly and silently passed through the streets of the city. The demonstration was ostensibly in honor of the "holy sacrament," an act of expiation for the insult put upon the mass by the protesters. But beneath this pageant a deadly purpose was concealed. On arriving opposite the house of a Lutheran, the betrayer made a sign, but no word was uttered. The procession halted, the house was entered, the family were dragged forth and chained, and the terrible company went forward in search of fresh victims. They "spared no house, great or small, not even the colleges of the University of Paris. . . . Morin made all the city quake. . . . It was a reign of terror." --Ibid., b. 4, ch. 10. {GC 225.2}
     
43  这些牺牲者是在残酷的剧痛之下折磨至死的,为了延长他们的痛苦,当局特别命令将火势降低。但他们是慷慨就义,视死如归。他们的节操丝毫没有动摇,他们的平安一点不受影响。逼迫他们的人既无法改变他们不屈不挠的意志,就觉得自己失败了。“刑场分布在巴黎各处,炽火终日不熄,目的无非是要借此对‘异端’散布恐怖的气氛。孰料结果还是福音占了优势。全巴黎的居民得以看到这新的道理能造就何等的人物。没有什么讲台能象殉道者的火葬堆一样有效。当这些人经过街道往刑场去的时候,他们脸上所焕发的安泰喜乐的光彩,他们在无情的火焰之中所显示英勇的气概,以及他们对于残害他们之人所表现的温柔饶恕的精神,使不少人的忿怒变为怜惜,仇恨变为仁爱,这些无声的见证为福音所讲的话,诚具有不可抗拒的能力。”(注二一)     The victims were put to death with cruel torture, it being specially ordered that the fire should be lowered in order to prolong their agony. But they died as conquerors. Their constancy were unshaken, their peace unclouded. Their persecutors, powerless to move their inflexible firmness, felt themselves defeated. "The scaffolds were distributed over all the quarters of Paris, and the burnings followed on successive days, the design being to spread the terror of heresy by spreading the executions. The advantage, however, in the end, remained with the gospel. All Paris was enabled to see what kind of men the new opinions could produce. There was no pulpit like the martyr's pile. The serene joy that lighted up the faces of these men as they passed along . . . to the place of execution, their heroism as they stood amid the bitter flames, their meek forgiveness of injuries, transformed, in instances not a few, anger into pity, and hate into love, and pleaded with resistless eloquence in behalf of the gospel."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 20. {GC 226.1}
     
44  神父们为要使群众的忿怒达到最高峰起见,竟散播了改正教徒极可怕的罪状,控告他们图谋屠杀罗马教徒,推翻政府,杀害国王。这些罪状是毫无影儿的事。然而所预言的灾祸有一天要在极其不同的情况下,并由于完全不同原因,一一应验。罗马教徒所加在无辜的改正教徒身上的酷刑,已经为自己积成惨重的报应,他们所预言即将来到的厄运,在后来的世纪中恰好临到法国的国王、政府和百姓身上;但是这些惨祸都是由于无神派的人和罗马教徒自己造成的。三百年之后,这些悲惨的灾祸之所以临到法国,不是因为改正教的建立,而是因为改正教会受了压制。     The priests, bent upon keeping the popular fury at its height, circulated the most terrible accusations against the Protestants. They were charged with plotting to massacre the Catholics, to overthrow the government, and to murder the king. Not a shadow of evidence could be produced in support of the allegations. Yet these prophecies of evil were to have a fulfillment; under far different circumstances, however, and from causes of an opposite character. The cruelties that were inflicted upon the innocent Protestants by the Catholics accumulated in a weight of retribution, and in after centuries wrought the very doom they had predicted to be impending, upon the king, his government, and his subjects; but it was brought about by infidels and by the papists themselves. It was not the establishment, but the suppression, of Protestantism, that, three hundred years later, was to bring upon France these dire calamities. {GC 226.2}
     
45  这时,猜疑、不信和恐怖充满于社会各阶层之间。同时普及各地的惊恐,显明路德的教训已经深深地影响了多少人的心,尤其是那些受过高深教育,拥有权势和品质高贵的人。许多重要和尊荣的地位无人署理。工匠,印刷工人,学者,大学教授,著作家,甚至于朝臣都不见了。成千成万的人逃出了巴黎,自愿离开祖国,流亡在外;许多人借此第一次声明了自己赞助改正教的信仰。罗马教看到自己的阵营之中有意料不到的“叛教徒”存在,大为惊异。他们就尽量在那些仍在他们掌握之中,较为平凡的对象身上泄忿。监狱大有人满之患,而且巴黎的空气似乎都被那为承认福音者而燃点起来的烟火所弥漫了。     Suspicion, distrust, and terror now pervaded all classes of society. Amid the general alarm it was seen how deep a hold the Lutheran teaching had gained upon the minds of men who stood highest for education, influence, and excellence of character. Positions of trust and honor were suddenly found vacant. Artisans, printers, scholars, professors in the universities, authors, and even courtiers, disappeared. Hundreds fled from Paris, self-constituted exiles from their native land, in many cases thus giving the first intimation that they favored the reformed faith. The papists looked about them in amazement at thought of the unsuspected heretics that had been tolerated among them. Their rage spent itself upon the multitudes of humbler victims who were within their power. The prisons were crowded, and the very air seemed darkened with the smoke of burning piles, kindled for the confessors of the gospel. {GC 227.1}
     
46  法兰西斯第一曾以十六世纪初叶文艺复兴运动的领导者自豪。他欢喜招致天下文人于朝中。他爱好文艺,轻视修道者的无知与迷信,至少是一部分原于他过去准许宗教改革自由的。但是这个提倡文艺的人此时因热衷于扑灭“异端”,竟发布命令取消法国全境的印刷事业!法兰西斯第一乃是许多例证之一,说明人的才智方面的修养并不足以保证他能摆脱宗教的偏见,而不至于逼迫他人。     Francis I had gloried in being a leader in the great movement for the revival of learning which marked the opening of the sixteenth century. He had delighted to gather at his court men of letters from every country. To his love of learning and his contempt for the ignorance and superstition of the monks was due, in part at least, the degree of toleration that had been granted to the reform. But, inspired with zeal to stamp out heresy, this patron of learning issued an edict declaring printing abolished all over France! Francis I presents one among the many examples on record showing that intellectual culture is not a safeguard against religious intolerance and persecution. {GC 227.2}
     
47  法国还要以一次庄严而公开的仪式,完全从事于除灭改正教徒的工作。神父们声称,那在反对弥撒的事上侮辱上天的罪必须用血来偿还,并要求国王代表他的百姓公开赞助这一可怕的工作。     France by a solemn and public ceremony was to commit herself fully to the destruction of Protestantism. The priests demanded that the affront offered to High Heaven in the condemnation of the mass be expiated in blood, and that the king, in behalf of his people, publicly give his sanction to the dreadful work.
     
48  他们决定在一五三五年一月二十一日举行这个可怕的仪式。神父们已在全国引起迷信的惧怕和顽固的仇恨。巴黎城的街道上挤满了从四方蜂拥而来的人群。那一天要以伟大而显赫的游行开始。“在游行的路线上,各家都要悬挂黑布以示致哀,每隔一段要设置神坛。”每家门前要点上火炬,以尊荣“圣体”。黎明之前,游行的队伍就在王宫前排好了。“前导的是几个教区的旗帜和十字架;以后是两人一排手执火炬的市民。”接着便是四个教团的修道士,各穿自己的特别制服。再后是搜集来的许多著名的“遗物”,随着这些“遗物”的是穿着紫色朱红色长袍,戴着珠宝装饰的教牧人员,组成华丽灿烂的行列。     The 21st of January, 1535, was fixed upon for the awful ceremonial. The superstitious fears and bigoted hatred of the whole nation had been roused. Paris was thronged with the multitudes that from all the surrounding country crowded her streets. The day was to be ushered in by a vast and imposing procession. "The houses along the line of march were hung with mourning drapery, and altars rose at intervals." Before every door was a lighted torch in honor of the "holy sacrament." Before daybreak the procession formed at the palace of the king. "First came the banners and crosses of the several parishes; next appeared the citizens, walking two and two, and bearing torches." The four orders of friars followed, each in its own peculiar dress. Then came a vast collection of famous relics. Following these rode lordly ecclesiastics in their purple and scarlet robes and jeweled adornings, a gorgeous and glittering array. {GC 228.1}
     
49  “巴黎的主教在壮丽的华盖之下,手拿‘圣体’,……四个贵族的首领护送着他。……国王走在‘圣体’后面。……法兰西斯第一没有戴皇冕,也没有穿王袍。”他“免冠垂目,手执点着的巨烛,”法国的元首竟“扮成一个忏悔的罪人。”(注二二)在沿路的每一座神坛之前,都卑躬地下跪,他不是为了自己污秽心灵的罪恶,也不是为了那染红双手的无辜之人的血,而乃是为他的百姓胆敢反对弥撒的大罪。在他后面跟着王后和国内的权贵,都是手执点着的火炬,两个两个地排列前行。     "The host was carried by the bishop of Paris under a magnificent canopy, . . . supported by four princes of the blood. . . . After the host walked the king. . . . Francis I on that day wore no crown, nor robe of state." With "head uncovered, his eyes cast on the ground, and in his hand a lighted taper," the king of France appeared "in the character of a penitent."--Ibid., b. 13, ch. 21. At every altar he bowed down in humiliation, nor for the vices that defiled his soul, nor the innocent blood that stained his hands, but for the deadly sin of his subjects who had dared to condemn the mass. Following him came the queen and the dignitaries of state, also walking two and two, each with a lighted torch. {GC 228.2}
     
50  当天的礼节之一,乃是国王亲自在主教公馆的大厅里,向国内的高级官员讲话。他愁容满面地出现在他们面前,以最动人的话语为这临到他国家的“罪恶,亵渎,忧伤,和羞辱的一天”致哀。他号召每一个忠顺的百姓帮助他根除那行将使全国败亡的瘟疫般的“异端”。他说:“诸位,我凭着自己的王位起誓,我若知道我的一个肢体被这可憎的腐烂所玷污或传染,我就必把它交给你们砍掉。……再者,我若看到我的一个儿女受了玷污,我也必不轻饶他。……我必亲自将他交出来,把他献给上帝为祭。”他说话时,声泪俱下,全体聚集的人也都哭了,他们异口同声地说:“或生或死,我们必要坚守罗马教的信仰。”(注二三)     As a part of the services of the day the monarch himself addressed the high officials of the kingdom in the great hall of the bishop's palace. With a sorrowful countenance he appeared before them and in words of moving eloquence bewailed "the crime, the blasphemy, the day of sorrow and disgrace," that had come upon the nation. And he called upon every loyal subject to aid in the extirpation of the pestilent heresy that threatened France with ruin. "As true, messieurs, as I am your king," he said, "if I knew one of my own limbs spotted or infected with this detestable rottenness, I would give it you to cut off. . . . And further, if I saw one of my children defiled by it, I would not spare him. . . . I would deliver him up myself, and would sacrifice him to God." Tears choked his utterance, and the whole assembly wept, with one accord exclaiming: "We will live and die for the Catholic religion!"--D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, b. 4, ch. 12. {GC 228.3}
     
51  那拒绝真理之光的国家已到了何等盲目而黑暗的地步啊。那“救众人的恩典”已经显明;但法国在看到它的权能和圣洁,千万人也已经受到它神圣荣美的吸引,并在城市乡村都被它的光辉照耀之后,竟转离了这救恩,宁可选择黑暗而不要光明。上天赐给他们的恩赐,他们竟拒绝了。他们称恶为善,称善为恶,直到他们收获了故意自欺的悲惨结果。这时他们或许诚心相信自己逼迫上帝的百姓就是事奉上帝,可是他们的诚心并不足以免去他们的罪。那能救他们脱离欺骗,保守他们不致流无辜人之血的真光,他们竟故意拒绝了。     Terrible had become the darkness of the nation that had rejected the light of truth. The grace "that bringeth salvation" had appeared; but France, after beholding its power and holiness, after thousands had been drawn by its divine beauty, after cities and hamlets had been illuminated by its radiance, had turned away, choosing darkness rather than light. They had put from them the heavenly gift when it was offered them. They had called evil good, and good evil, till they had fallen victims to their willful self-deception. Now, though they might actually believe that they were doing God service in persecuting His people, yet their sincerity did not render them guiltless. The light that would have saved them from deception, from staining their souls with bloodguiltiness, they had willfully rejected. {GC 229.1}
     
52  他们在主教的大教堂里立了根除“异端”的誓约,这座大教堂就是忘记永生上帝的国家在三百年后设置“理智女神”的地方。于是队伍又排列起来,那些代表法国的人们又出去进行他们所起誓要作的工作。“沿途在相隔不远的地方,已经竖好火刑的柱子,预备把一些改正教徒活活的烧死;当天已安排就绪,要在国王莅临的时候随时把柴薪点燃起来,使游行的人都可以观看死刑的执行。”(注二四)这些为基督作见证之人所受的酷刑,实在不忍卒述,但他们都是坚持到底,毫不动摇。当有人叫他们反悔时,有一个人回答说:“我只能相信先知和使徒从前所传讲的,以及一切圣徒所相信的道。我坚信上帝的心足以抵挡地狱一切的权势。”(注二五)     A solemn oath to extirpate heresy was taken in the great cathedral where, nearly three centuries later, the Goddess of Reason was to be enthroned by a nation that had forgotten the living God. Again the procession formed, and the representatives of France set out to begin the work which they had sworn to do. "At short distances scaffolds had been erected, on which certain Protestant Christians were to be burned alive, and it was arranged that the fagots should be lighted at the moment the king approached, and that the procession should halt to witness the execution."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 21. The details of the tortures endured by these witnesses for Christ are too harrowing for recital; but there was no wavering on the part of the victims. On being urged to recant, one answered: "I only believe in what the prophets and the apostles formerly preached, and what all the company of saints believed. My faith has a confidence in God which will resist all the powers of hell."--D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, b. 4, ch. 12. {GC 229.2}
     
53  行列一次又一次地在执行酷刑的地方停了下来。最后,众人回到王宫前的出发点就分散了,王和主教们也都回去,大家无不为这一天的工作表示满意,并自相庆贺,认为他们该日所开始的工作必要贯彻下去,直到“异端”完全消灭为止。     Again and again the procession halted at the places of torture. Upon reaching their starting point at the royal palace, the crowd dispersed, and the king and the prelates withdrew, well satisfied with the day's proceedings and congratulating themselves that the work now begun would be continued to the complete destruction of heresy. {GC 230.1}
     
54  诚然,法国所拒绝的和平福音终于完全被根除了,而其结果是极其悲惨的。一七九三年的一月二十一日,恰好在法国完全从事于逼迫改正教徒的二百五十八年之后,另一个游行的行列,以完全不同的宗旨经过了巴黎的街道。“国王又是其中的主要人物,那时也有骚乱和呼叫;又有杀了再杀的喊声;也有黑色的刑架;又是以可怕的死刑结束那一天的节目。那一天路易十六与禁卒和刽子手角力挣扎,结果被拖到断头台上,用强力被按倒在地,直到大刀落下,他的头颅滚到台下为止。”(注二六)法王还不是唯一的牺牲者;靠近那一带地方,在恐怖时代血腥的日子里,竟有二千八百人死在断头台上。     The gospel of peace which France had rejected was to be only too surely rooted out, and terrible would be the results. On the 21st of January, 1793, two hundred and fifty-eight years from the very day that fully committed France to the persecution of the Reformers, another procession, with a far different purpose, passed through the streets of Paris. "Again the king was the chief figure; again there were tumult and shouting; again there was heard the cry for more victims; again there were black scaffolds; and again the scenes of the day were closed by horrid executions; Louis XVI, struggling hand to hand with his jailers and executioners, was dragged forward to the block, and there held down by main force till the ax had fallen, and his dissevered head rolled on the scaffold."--Wylie, b. 13, ch. 21. Nor was the king the only victim; near the same spot two thousand and eight hundred human beings perished by the guillotine during the bloody days of the Reign of Terror. {GC 230.2}
     
55  改革运动已经向世人提供一本展开的《圣经》,显明上帝律法的条例,并向人们的良心力陈律法的要求。那位具有无穷之爱的已经向人阐明上天的典章和原则。上帝曾说:“所以你们要谨守遵行,这就是你们在万民眼前的智慧、聪明。他们听见这一切律例,必说,这大国的人真是有智慧、有聪明。”(申4:6)当法国拒绝了上天的恩赐时,他就是撒下了扰乱和败亡的种子;而且有其因必有其果,终结就是大革命和恐怖时代的来临。     The Reformation had presented to the world an open Bible, unsealing the precepts of the law of God and urging its claims upon the consciences of the people. Infinite Love had unfolded to men the statutes and principles of heaven. God had said: "Keep therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people." Deuteronomy 4:6. When France rejected the gift of heaven, she sowed the seeds of anarchy and ruin; and the inevitable outworking of cause and effect resulted in the Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
     
56  在张贴标语所引起的逼迫发生之前,勇敢而热心的法勒尔早已被迫逃到了他的故乡。他逃到瑞士,努力继续萨文黎的工作,结果帮助把当时的逆势扭转过来,使改革运动又在瑞士占了上风。法勒尔晚年寄居在瑞士,但他对于法国的改革运动继续发挥强有力的影响。在他开始流亡的几年中,特别致力于将福音传给故乡的工作。他在靠近故国边境的地带,向乡亲传了一个相当的时期;在那里,他以不息不倦的警惕,注视着福音所引起的战争,并以鼓励和劝勉的话帮助法国的同道。他得到其他流亡同道的帮助,将德国改革家的著作译成法文,连同法文《圣经》一齐大量印发。这些印刷品借着售书员在法国到处推销。这些书籍以低价供给售书员,使他们可以靠着利润继续工作。     Long before the persecution excited by the placards, the bold and ardent Farel had been forced to flee from the land of his birth. He repaired to Switzerland, and by his labors, seconding the work of Zwingli, he helped to turn the scale in favor of the Reformation. His later years were to be spent here, yet he continued to exert a decided influence upon the reform in France. During the first years of his exile, his efforts were especially directed to spreading the gospel in his native country. He spent considerable time in preaching among his countrymen near the frontier, where with tireless vigilance he watched the conflict and aided by his words of encouragement and counsel. With the assistance of other exiles, the writings of the German Reformers were translated into the French language and, together with the French Bible, were printed in large quantities. By colporteurs these works were sold extensively in France. They were furnished to the colporteurs at a low price, and thus the profits of the work enabled them to continue it. {GC 231.1}
     
57  法勒尔曾以一个卑微的小学教师的身份在瑞士开始他的工作。他找到一个偏僻的教区,在那里专心从事教育儿童的工作。除了普通课程之外,又小心翼翼地介绍了《圣经》的真理,希望能借着儿童将福音传给他们的父母。结果真有一些人相信了,但是神父们却出来拦阻这工作,并鼓动迷信的乡民起来反对它。神父们强调说:“那不可能是基督的福音,因为宣传的结果不是和平,而是战争。”(注二七)象第一世纪的门徒一样,有人在这城逼迫他们,他们就逃到那城去。法勒尔也是从这一乡到另一乡,从这一城到另一城,徒步旅行,忍受饥寒和疲劳;而且无论到哪里,他都是冒着性命的危险。他在市场里,教堂内讲道,有时也在大教堂里。有时候没有人来教堂里听他讲道;有时候他的演讲被喧哗和讥诮声打断了;有时他被人粗暴地从讲台上拖了下来。他曾多次被暴徒袭击,甚至几乎被打死。但他仍排除万难,勇往直前。他虽然屡次遭人拒绝,但他却不屈不挠,再接再厉;终于看到许多原来是罗马教堡垒的城镇,一个一个地开门欢迎福音。他开始工作的那个小教区,不久也接受了宗教改革的信仰。摩拉特和涅沙忒尔两区的一些城市也放弃了罗马教的仪式,并把教堂中的神像撤去了。     Farel entered upon his work in Switzerland in the humble guise of a schoolmaster. Repairing to a secluded parish, he devoted himself to the instruction of children. Besides the usual branches of learning, he cautiously introduced the truths of the Bible, hoping through the children to reach the parents. There were some who believed, but the priests came forward to stop the work, and the superstitious country people were roused to oppose it. "That cannot be the gospel of Christ," urged the priest, "seeing the preaching of it does not bring peace, but war."--Wylie, b. 14, ch. 3. Like the first disciples, when persecuted in one city he fled to another. From village to village, from city to city, he went, traveling on foot, enduring hunger, cold, and weariness, and everywhere in peril of his life. He preached in the market places, in the churches, sometimes in the pulpits of the cathedrals. Sometimes he found the church empty of hearers; at times his preaching was interrupted by shouts and jeers; again he was pulled violently out of the pulpit. More than once he was set upon by the rabble and beaten almost to death. Yet he pressed forward. Though often repulsed, with unwearying persistence he returned to the attack; and, one after another, he saw towns and cities which had been strongholds of popery, opening their gates to the gospel. The little parish where he had first labored soon accepted the reformed faith. The cities of Morat and Neuchatel also renounced the Romish rites and removed the idolatrous images from their churches. {GC 231.2}
     
58  法勒尔久已盼望在日内瓦树立新教的旗帜。如果能得到这一座城,它就可以作法国,瑞士,和意大利改革运动的中心。他既怀着这个目的,就继续工作,直到周围的许多城镇和乡村都建立了教会。随后他带着一个同伴进了日内瓦。结果,他在那里只有两次讲道的机会。该地的神父首先想叫政府当局定他的罪,既不得逞,他们就招他出席教会的一次议会,同时他们决定自己藏着凶器来杀害他。他们又在会议厅外布置了一群怒气汹汹的暴徒,手中拿着棍棒刀剑,准备万一他在议会内逃脱,则在厅外必可致他的死命。虽然如此,在场的官府和武装兵士却搭救了他。次日清早,他和他的同伴就被领到湖的对岸一个安全的地点。这样就结束了他第一次在日内瓦传道的工作。     For the next trial a lowlier instrument was chosen--a young man, so humble in appearance that he was coldly treated even by the professed friends of reform. But what could such a one do where Farel had been rejected? How could one of little courage and experience withstand the tempest before which the strongest and bravest had been forced to flee? "Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord." Zechariah 4:6. "God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty." "Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men." 1 Corinthians 1:27, 25. {GC 232.2}
     
59  第二次的尝试是借用一个极其卑微的器皿,就是连自称为改革运动的朋友也瞧不起的一个气貌不扬的青年人,名叫弗洛蒙特。在法勒尔遭到拒绝的地方,象这样的一个人还能作什么呢?最强壮最勇敢的人尚且不得不逃跑,这个比较少有勇敢和经验的人,怎能抵挡得住那里的风暴呢?“万军之耶和华说,不是依靠势力,不是依靠才能,乃是依靠我的灵方能成事。”“上帝却拣选了……世上软弱的,叫那强壮的羞愧。”“因为上帝的愚拙总比人智慧,上帝的软弱总比人强壮。”(亚4:6;林前1:27,25)     For the next trial a lowlier instrument was chosen--a young man, so humble in appearance that he was coldly treated even by the professed friends of reform. But what could such a one do where Farel had been rejected? How could one of little courage and experience withstand the tempest before which the strongest and bravest had been forced to flee? "Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit, saith the Lord." Zechariah 4:6. "God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty." "Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is stronger than men." 1 Corinthians 1:27, 25. {GC 232.2}
     
60  弗洛蒙特开始工作时,是作一个小学教师。他在学校里所教学生的真理,由学生在自己家中重述出来。不久,学生的家长们都来听他解释《圣经》了,直到他的教室里坐满了热切的听众。他又免费分散《新约圣经》和真理的小册子,这些印刷品就到了那些不敢公然来听这新道理的人手中。过了一些时候,这位工作者也被迫逃跑,但他所教的真理已经在众人心中根深蒂固了。改革运动的种子既已撒下,就继续的强大发展。后来传道人员回来,都是由于他们的努力,改正教的崇拜终于在日内瓦建立起来了。     Froment began his work as a schoolmaster. The truths which he taught the children at school they repeated at their homes. Soon the parents came to hear the Bible explained, until the schoolroom was filled with attentive listeners. New Testaments and tracts were freely distributed, and they reached many who dared not come openly to listen to the new doctrines. After a time this laborer also was forced to flee; but the truths he taught had taken hold upon the minds of the people. The Reformation had been planted, and it continued to strengthen and extend. The preachers returned, and through their labors the Protestant worship was finally established in Geneva. {GC 232.3}
     
61  喀尔文经过了多方的飘泊和播迁之后,才到达日内瓦,那时该城已经公然表示支持宗教改革运动。当喀尔文往巴塞尔去,最后一次访问故乡的时候,他发现路上有查理第五的军队把守着,所以他不得不绕道日内瓦。     The city had already declared for the Reformation when Calvin, after various wanderings and vicissitudes, entered its gates. Returning from a last visit to his birthplace, he was on his way to Basel, when, finding the direct road occupied by the armies of Charles V, he was forced to take the circuitous route by Geneva. {GC 233.1}
     
62  法勒尔认为这次的访问乃是上帝的安排。该城虽已接受宗教改革的信仰,但仍有很多的工作急待进行。因人不是集体入教,乃是一个一个地悔改归向上帝的。重生的工作不是由于会议的命令,而是由于圣灵的能力在人心内运行,启发人的良知获致成功的。日内瓦的居民虽已摆脱了罗马的权势,但他们还不易放弃他们在她权下所养成的恶习。要在这里确立福音纯洁的原则,并训练人以合适的资格配去充当上天所呼召他们去担任的职位,实在不是一件轻而易举的事。     In this visit Farel recognized the hand of God. Though Geneva had accepted the reformed faith, yet a great work remained to be accomplished here. It is not as communities but as individuals that men are converted to God; the work of regeneration must be wrought in the heart and conscience by the power of the Holy Spirit, not by the decrees of councils. While the people of Geneva had cast off the authority of Rome, they were not so ready to renounce the vices that had flourished under her rule. To establish here the pure principles of the gospel and to prepare this people to fill worthily the position to which Providence seemed calling them were not light tasks. {GC 233.2}
     
63  法勒尔确信喀尔文是可以和他联合起来共同从事这工作的。他奉上帝的名严肃地嘱咐这个青年的传道人留在该地工作。喀尔文闻之大惊,畏缩不前。他秉性怯懦,喜爱和平,所以不敢与勇敢,独立,甚至生性过激的日内瓦人接触。他身体衰弱,又加上好学的习惯,所以他很想退修。他深信自己写作的才干对改革的事业可能有更大的贡献,他想寻找一个安静的读书之处,就在那里借着印刷品教训众人,建立教会。但是法勒尔严肃的劝告如同是从上天来的呼召一样,使他不敢推辞。似乎是“上帝从天伸出他的圣手,捉住了他,使他无可抗拒地留在他所急要离开的地方。”(注二八)     Farel was confident that he had found in Calvin one whom he could unite with himself in this work. In the name of God he solemnly adjured the young evangelist to remain and labor here. Calvin drew back in alarm. Timid and peace-loving, he shrank from contact with the bold, independent, and even violent spirit of the Genevese. The feebleness of his health, together with his studious habits, led him to seek retirement. Believing that by his pen he could best serve the cause of reform, he desired to find a quiet retreat for study, and there, through the press, instruct and build up the churches. But Farel's solemn admonition came to him as a call from Heaven, and he dared not refuse. It seemed to him, he said, "that the hand of God was stretched down from heaven, that it lay hold of him, and fixed him irrevocably to the place he was so impatient to leave."-- D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation in Europe in the Time of Calvin, b. 9, ch. 17. {GC 233.3}
     
64  这时,有种种大危险包围着改正教的工作。教皇的咒诅会威逼着日内瓦,而且强大的邻国随时要来毁灭它。这一个弱小的城市怎能抵挡那时常迫使君王和皇帝屈服的有强大势力的教廷呢?它怎能抗拒世界强大的征服者的武力呢?     At this time great perils surrounded the Protestant cause. The anathemas of the pope thundered against Geneva, and mighty nations threatened it with destruction. How was this little city to resist the powerful hierarchy that had so often forced kings and emperors to submission? How could it stand against the armies of the world's great conquerors? {GC 234.1}
     
65  在整个基督教世界中,改正教受了不可轻视之仇敌的威胁。改革运动的初期胜利已经过去了,罗马便重整旗鼓,希望彻底消灭这个运动。正当此时,在一切捍卫罗马教皇的团体中那最残忍放恣而有力量的耶稣会组织起来了。这一派人割断了一切今世的亲属利害关系,绝对不讲究人本性的,合理的,正当的要求。他们除了本组织的规则与关系之外,不承认任何其他的规则或关系,除了扩张本组织的势力之外,他们不知道什么其他的责任。基督的福音曾使信徒有能力应付危险,忍受苦难,在寒冷,饥饿,辛劳,穷乏之中,不屈不挠,在拷问,监禁,火刑之前,高举真理的旗帜。为要对抗这种力量起见,耶稣会在会员中灌输了狂热般的迷信,使他们也能忍受同样的危难,用尽欺骗的手段来反对真理的能力。没有什么重大的罪恶是他们所不敢犯的,也没有什么卑鄙的欺骗是他们所不肯行的。也没有什么离奇的伪造是他们所不能用的。他们立誓终身过贫苦卑贱的生活,他们一贯的目的就是获得执掌财富权,借以推翻改革运动,重建教皇的至上威权。(见附录一)     Throughout Christendom, Protestantism was menaced by formidable foes. The first triumphs of the Reformation past, Rome summoned new forces, hoping to accomplish its destruction. At this time the order of the Jesuits was created, the most cruel, unscrupulous, and powerful of all the champions of popery. Cut off from earthly ties and human interests, dead to the claims of natural affection, reason and conscience wholly silenced, they knew no rule, no tie, but that of their order, and no duty but to extend its power. (See Appendix.) The gospel of Christ had enabled its adherents to meet danger and endure suffering, undismayed by cold, hunger, toil, and poverty, to uphold the banner of truth in face of the rack, the dungeon, and the stake. To combat these forces, Jesuitism inspired its followers with a fanaticism that enabled them to endure like dangers, and to oppose to the power of truth all the weapons of deception. There was no crime too great for them to commit, no deception too base for them to practice, no disguise too difficult for them to assume. Vowed to perpetual poverty and humility, it was their studied aim to secure wealth and power, to be devoted to the overthrow of Protestantism, and the re-establishment of the papal supremacy.
     
66  当他们以耶稣会会员的身份出现时,他们就披上了圣洁的外衣,到监狱和医院访问,为患病和穷苦的人服务,声称自己已经放弃世界,自命为那周流四方行善事的耶稣名下的人。但在无瑕无疵的外表之下,往往隐藏着最邪恶,最阴毒的计谋。耶稣会的基本原则乃是以目的决定手段。由于这一条规章,撒谎,盗窃,起假誓,暗杀等罪行,若是为求教会的利益,则不但可以原谅,而且应当奖励。耶稣会的人在各种伪装之下,混入政府的机关中,甚至擢升担任君王的顾问,左右国家的政务。有时他们扮成仆人去侦察主人的行动。他们为诸侯和贵族的子弟创办大学,为普通的民众设立学校;信从改正教者父母的儿女,则被引诱去遵守罗马教的仪节。他们用罗马教崇拜中的一切属于外表的壮观和炫耀淆乱人心,刺激并迷惑人的想象力;这样,父亲们所辛劳流血换来的自由却被儿女们背弃了。耶稣会的会员迅速地散布到全欧,他们无论到了哪里,那里的罗马教就复兴起来了。     When appearing as members of their order, they wore a garb of sanctity, visiting prisons and hospitals, ministering to the sick and the poor, professing to have renounced the world, and bearing the sacred name of Jesus, who went about doing good. But under this blameless exterior the most criminal and deadly purposes were often concealed. It was a fundamental principle of the order that the end justifies the means. By this code, lying, theft, perjury, assassination, were not only pardonable but commendable, when they served the interests of the church. Under various disguises the Jesuits worked their way into offices of state, climbing up to be the counselors of kings, and shaping the policy of nations. They became servants to act as spies upon their masters. They established colleges for the sons of princes and nobles, and schools for the common people; and the children of Protestant parents were drawn into an observance of popish rites. All the outward pomp and display of the Romish worship was brought to bear to confuse the mind and dazzle and captivate the imagination, and thus the liberty for which the fathers had toiled and bled was betrayed by the sons. The Jesuits rapidly spread themselves over Europe, and wherever they went, there followed a revival of popery. {GC 235.1}
     
67  为了要给耶稣会更大的权力起见,教皇下令重新设置“宗教裁判所。”(见附录二)虽然一般人,连罗马教国家的人,对这个机构非常憎厌,但信奉罗马教的统治者仍旧设立了这个可怕的审判所,那些在光天化日之下所不能容忍的酷刑,却在黑暗的监狱中重新演出来了。在许多国家中,千千万万社会的精华,最纯洁,最高尚,最聪明,受过最高深教育的人士,虔诚献身的牧师们,勤劳而爱国的公民,多才多艺的美术家,技巧的工匠,若不是被杀,就是被迫逃往他乡。     To give them greater power, a bull was issued re-establishing the inquisition. (See Appendix.) Notwithstanding the general abhorrence with which it was regarded, even in Catholic countries, this terrible tribunal was again set up by popish rulers, and atrocities too terrible to bear the light of day were repeated in its secret dungeons. In many countries, thousands upon thousands of the very flower of the nation, the purest and noblest, the most intellectual and highly educated, pious and devoted pastors, industrious and patriotic citizens, brilliant scholars, talented artists, skillful artisans, were slain or forced to flee to other lands. {GC 235.2}
     
68  罗马教廷为要熄灭改革运动的亮光,从人间取消《圣经》,并恢复黑暗时代的无知与迷信起见,就不惜采用以上的这些手段。但在上帝的赐福,和他所兴起继续路德的那些尊贵之人的努力之下,改正教并没有就此被推翻。它的力量并不在乎诸侯的赞助或武力。而最弱小的国家,最平凡,最没有力量的邦国成了它的保垒。那与当时最富强的国家西班牙暴虐势力相周旋的,乃是那被困于阴谋毁灭它的强敌之间的小日内瓦城,以及北海沙洲上的的荷兰国,还有为改革运动获得多次胜利的寒冷荒凉的瑞典。     Such were the means which Rome had invoked to quench the light of the Reformation, to withdraw from men the Bible, and to restore the ignorance and superstition of the Dark Ages. But under God's blessing and the labors of those noble men whom He had raised up to succeed Luther, Protestantism was not overthrown. Not to the favor or arms of princes was it to owe its strength. The smallest countries, the humblest and least powerful nations, became its strongholds. It was little Geneva in the midst of mighty foes plotting her destruction; it was Holland on her sandbanks by the northern sea, wrestling against the tyranny of Spain, then the greatest and most opulent of kingdoms; it was bleak, sterile Sweden, that gained victories for the Reformation. {GC 235.3}
     
69  喀尔文在日内瓦工作几近三十年之久;他首先在这里设立了一个固守《圣经》道德的教会,以后他又在全欧洲推进了改革运动。他作一个公众的领袖不是没有过失的,他所传的教义也不是没有一点错误的。但他在宣扬当时代特别紧要的真理上,在维护改正教的原则来抵拒罗马教反击的潮流上,在改正教会提倡俭朴纯洁的生活来代替罗马教所带来的骄傲与腐败上,他的贡献是不可埋没的。     For nearly thirty years Calvin labored at Geneva, first to establish there a church adhering to the morality of the Bible, and then for the advancement of the Reformation throughout Europe. His course as a public leader was not faultless, nor were his doctrines free from error. But he was instrumental in promulgating truths that were of special importance in his time, in maintaining the principles of Protestantism against the fast-returning tide of popery, and in promoting in the reformed churches simplicity and purity of life, in place of the pride and corruption fostered under the Romish teaching. {GC 236.1}
     
70  有许多印刷品和传教士从日内瓦派遣出去传播改革的教义。一切受逼迫的地区都仰赖日内瓦为教训,劝诫,和鼓励的来源。喀尔文的城(日内瓦)已成了全西欧被追逐之人的避难所。几百年来,躲避那可怕之风暴的流亡者,都逃入了日内瓦城。饥饿,受伤,为家庭及亲属所遗弃的人,受了热烈的欢迎和温慈的照顾;这些人在这里安家,用他们的技能,学识,敬虔为这城造福。也有许多到此避难的人,后来又回到他们的故乡去抵抗罗马的暴政。苏格兰的英勇改革家约翰诺克斯,英国的许多清教徒,荷兰西班牙的改正教徒,法国的胡格诺派教徒,都曾从日内瓦带回真理的火炬,去照亮他们故乡的黑暗。     From Geneva, publications and teachers went out to spread the reformed doctrines. To this point the persecuted of all lands looked for instruction, counsel, and encouragement. The city of Calvin became a refuge for the hunted Reformers of all Western Europe. Fleeing from the awful tempests that continued for centuries, the fugitives came to the gates of Geneva. Starving, wounded, bereft of home and kindred, they were warmly welcomed and tenderly cared for; and finding a home here, they blessed the city of their adoption by their skill, their learning, and their piety. Many who sought here a refuge returned to their own countries to resist the tyranny of Rome. John Knox, the brave Scotch Reformer, not a few of the English Puritans, the Protestants of Holland and of Spain, and the Huguenots of France carried from Geneva the torch of truth to lighten the darkness of their native lands. {GC 236.2}

 

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* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
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* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
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能邮寄一些吗
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037