你好,游客 登录 注册 搜索
背景:
阅读新闻

善恶之争

第十四章 真理在英国的进展

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录

 

真理在英国的进展     Later English Reformers
     
01    正当路德把一本盖着的《圣经》向德国人民揭开的时候,廷达尔在上帝圣灵的激励之下,也在英国作这同样的工作。威克里夫的英文《圣经》是从拉丁文本翻译过来的,而这拉丁文本却有许多错误。那时《圣经》都是手抄的,而抄本《圣经》的价值非常昂贵;除了少数富户或贵族之外,别人都无力购买;再加上教会的严予禁止,所以《圣经》流通不广。到了一五一六年,就是路德发表他宣言的前一年,伊拉斯莫斯出版了他的希腊文和拉丁文的《新约圣经》。这是原文《圣经》第一次的印行。这一个著作改正了过去译本的许多错误,而且意思也更加清楚了。它使许多学者更明白真理的知识,并使宗教改革的工作得到新的动力。可是一般平民大都还不能亲自阅读上帝的话。所以廷达尔必须出来完成威克里夫的工作,把《圣经》献给他的同胞。     While Luther was opening a closed Bible to the people of Germany, Tyndale was impelled by the Spirit of God to do the same for England. Wycliffe's Bible had been translated from the Latin text, which contained many errors. It had never been printed, and the cost of manuscript copies was so great that few but wealthy men or nobles could procure it; and, furthermore, being strictly proscribed by the church, it had had a comparatively narrow circulation. In 1516, a year before the appearance of Luther's theses, Erasmus had published his Greek and Latin version of the New Testament. Now for the first time the word of God was printed in the original tongue. In this work many errors of former versions were corrected, and the sense was more clearly rendered. It led many among the educated classes to a better knowledge of the truth, and gave a new impetus to the work of reform. But the common people were still, to a great extent, debarred from God's word. Tyndale was to complete the work of Wycliffe in giving the Bible to his countrymen. {GC 245.1}
     
02    廷达尔是一个孜孜不倦的学者,也是一个热心寻求真理的人,他从伊拉斯莫斯的希腊文《圣经》中接受了福音。他毫无畏惧地把自己所信仰的真理传给别人,并竭力主张一切道理都应以《圣经》为准则。罗马教声称,教会把《圣经》赐给世人,所以只有教会能解释《圣经》;廷达尔反驳这种论调说:“你知道是谁指教老鹰在空中抓食么?这同一位上帝也教导他如饥如渴的子民在他的圣言中寻找他们的天父。你们非但没有把《圣经》赐给我们,你们反而把《圣经》埋藏起来,不让我们阅读;把那些教导《圣经》的人烧死的也是你们,倘若可能的话,你们巴不得连《圣经》也要烧掉呢。”(注一)     A diligent student and an earnest seeker for truth, he had received the gospel from the Greek Testament of Erasmus. He fearlessly preached his convictions, urging that all doctrines be tested by the Scriptures. To the papist claim that the church had given the Bible, and the church alone could explain it, Tyndale responded: "Do you know who taught the eagles to find their prey? Well, that same God teaches His hungry children to find their Father in His word. Far from having given us the Scriptures, it is you who have hidden them from us; it is you who burn those who teach them, and if you could, you would burn the Scriptures themselves."--D'Aubigne, History of the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century, b. 18, ch. 4. {GC 245.2}
     
03    廷达尔的讲道引起了极大的兴趣;许多人接受了真理。但神父们是时常警觉着的,当他一离开一个工作地点时,他们就要设法用威吓和诬蔑的手段破坏他的工作。他们也时常得到成功,廷达尔说:“这怎么办呢?我在一个地方撒下了种子,等我一离开,仇敌就来蹂躏。而我却不能同时在每一个地方。唉!惟愿各地的基督徒手中都有他们本国文字的《圣经》,他们自己就能抵挡这些诡辩的人了。若没有《圣经》,就不能把教友的信心建立在真理的基础上。”(注二)     Tyndale's preaching excited great interest; many accepted the truth. But the priests were on the alert, and no sooner had he left the field than they by their threats and misrepresentations endeavored to destroy his work. Too often they succeeded. "What is to be done?" he exclaimed. "While I am sowing in one place, the enemy ravages the field I have just left. I cannot be everywhere. Oh! if Christians possessed the Holy Scriptures in their own tongue, they could of themselves withstand these sophists. Without the Bible it is impossible to establish the laity in the truth."--Ibid., b. 18, ch. 4. {GC 246.1}
     
04    这时廷达尔心中立定了一个新的目的。他说:“以色列人在耶和华殿中所吟诵的诗篇乃是用以色列的方言;难道福音不该用英国的方言向我们讲话么?……教会正在晌午的时候,难道亮光能比黎明的时候还少么?……基督徒应该用他们本国的语文诵读《新约圣经》。”那时代教会中的学者和教师们对真理的意见不能一致。惟有借着《圣经》,人才能得到正确的结论。“一个人拥护这一个学者,另一个人则拥护那一个学者。……这些著作家的意见都是彼此冲突的。我们怎能断定谁是谁非呢?……有什么方法呢?……惟有借着上帝的话。”(注三)     A new purpose now took possession of his mind. "It was in the language of Israel," said he, "that the psalms were sung in the temple of Jehovah; and shall not the gospel speak the language of England among us? . . . Ought the church to have less light at noonday than at the dawn? . . . Christians must read the New Testament in their mother tongue." The doctors and teachers of the church disagreed among themselves. Only by the Bible could men arrive at the truth. "One holdeth this doctor, another that. . . . Now each of these authors contradicts the other. How then can we distinguish him who says right from him who says wrong? . . . How? . . . Verily by God's word."--Ibid., b. 18, ch. 4. {GC 246.2}
     
05    不久之后,有一个博学的罗马教师同廷达尔辩论说:“没有上帝的律法,比没有教皇的律法还好呢。”廷达尔回答说:“我反对教皇和他一切的律法;如果上帝给我相当寿命的话,过不多年,我必要使农村中耕田的童子比你更明白《圣经》。(注四)     It was not long after that a learned Catholic doctor, engaging in controversy with him, exclaimed: "We were better to be without God's laws than the pope's." Tyndale replied: "I defy the pope and all his laws; and if God spare my life, ere many years I will cause a boy that driveth the plow to know more of the Scripture than you do."--Anderson, Annals of the English Bible, page 19. {GC 246.3}
     
06    这就坚定了他素来所怀抱的意向,就是将本国语文的《新约圣经》献给他的同胞,于是他立时着手工作。他因受逼迫便离乡背井到了伦敦,在那里继续工作,一时也没有受到阻挠。但后来罗马教徒又很凶暴地逼他走了。全英国似乎都闭门不纳,他就决意避到德国去了。他在德国开始印行英文《新约圣经》。他的工作两次受到了拦阻;但当一个城禁止他工作时,他就到另一个城去。最后他到了俄姆斯,就是几年前路德在会议前为福音辩护的地方。在这古老的城里,有许多赞助改革运动的友人,所以廷达尔在这里顺利的进行工作,再没有遇到什么拦阻。不久他初版印了三千本《圣经》,而同年又再版一次。     The purpose which he had begun to cherish, of giving to the people the New Testament Scriptures in their own language, was now confirmed, and he immediately applied himself to the work. Driven from his home by persecution, he went to London, and there for a time pursued his labors undisturbed. But again the violence of the papists forced him to flee. All England seemed closed against him, and he resolved to seek shelter in Germany. Here he began the printing of the English New Testament. Twice the work was stopped; but when forbidden to print in one city, he went to another. At last he made his way to Worms, where, a few years before, Luther had defended the gospel before the Diet. In that ancient city were many friends of the Reformation, and Tyndale there prosecuted his work without further hindrance. Three thousand copies of the New Testament were soon finished, and another edition followed in the same year. {GC 246.4}
     
07    他以非常的热情和坚忍继续工作。虽然英国当局严严地在各港口盘查禁运,但上帝的圣言终于用各样秘密的方法运到了伦敦,再从那里流通全国。罗马教会企图扑灭真理,总是徒然。有一次达尔汉的主教曾从廷达尔的朋友所开的书店中,把他所有的《圣经》都买了去,意思是要毁掉这些《圣经》,极力拦阻流通《圣经》的工作。但相反地,这一笔购买《圣经》的款子倒被用为采购纸张原料,以供再版更好的《圣经》,况且如果没有这笔经费的话,他们还无力进行再版的工作呢。后来在廷达尔被监禁的时候,当局要他供出那些曾经以经济援助他印行《圣经》之人的名字,作为他恢复自由的条件。他回答说:“达尔汉的主教所作的贡献比任何人都大,因为他付了重价购买大批的存书,使我们能奋勇地继续工作。”     With great earnestness and perseverance he continued his labors. Notwithstanding the English authorities had guarded their ports with the strictest vigilance, the word of God was in various ways secretly conveyed to London and thence circulated throughout the country. The papists attempted to suppress the truth, but in vain. The bishop of Durham at one time bought of a bookseller who was a friend of Tyndale his whole stock of Bibles, for the purpose of destroying them, supposing that this would greatly hinder the work. But, on the contrary, the money thus furnished, purchased material for a new and better edition, which, but for this, could not have been published. When Tyndale was afterward made a prisoner, his liberty was offered him on condition that he would reveal the names of those who had helped him meet the expense of printing his Bibles. He replied that the bishop of Durham had done more than any other person; for by paying a large price for the books left on hand, he had enabled him to go on with good courage. {GC 247.1}
     
08    廷达尔后来被卖到他仇敌的手中,有一次在监狱里受了好几个月的痛苦。他终于为道殉身,借此为自己的信仰作了见证;但他所预备的武器在以后的世纪中,使许多其他福音的战士能以相继兴起作战,直到今日。     Tyndale was betrayed into the hands of his enemies, and at one time suffered imprisonment for many months. He finally witnessed for his faith by a martyr's death; but the weapons which he prepared have enabled other soldiers to do battle through all the centuries even to our time. {GC 247.2}
     
09    另一位改革家拉替麦在讲道时,他也主张众人应当用本国的文字诵读《圣经》。他说《圣经》“乃是上帝自己”所著作的。《圣经》具有著作者的能力和永恒的性质。“任何君王,皇帝,官长和统治者,……都有顺从……他圣言的本分。”“我们不可另辟蹊径。务要顺从上帝圣言的引领;我们不可随从我们……的先祖行事,不要问他们作的是什么,而乃是要问他们应该作的是什么。”(注五)     Latimer maintained from the pulpit that the Bible ought to be read in the language of the people. The Author of Holy Scripture, said he, "is God Himself;" and this Scripture partakes of the might and eternity of its Author. "There is no king, emperor, magistrate, and ruler . . . but are bound to obey . . . His holy word." "Let us not take any bywalks, but let God's word direct us: let us not walk after . . . our forefathers, nor seek not what they did, but what they should have done."--Hugh Latimer, "First Sermon Preached Before King Edward VI." {GC 248.1}

 

     
10    廷达尔的忠实朋友巴尼斯和弗黎斯也曾起来维护真理。相继兴起的,还有利特理和克蓝麦。这些英国的改革家都是很有名的学者,其中多数的人曾因热诚或敬虔而一度为罗马教会所器重。他们反对罗马教,乃是因为看出教廷的许多错谬。他们已经熟悉巴比伦的奥秘,这就使他们为反对她所作的见证更加有力了。     Barnes and Frith, the faithful friends of Tyndale, arose to defend the truth. The Ridleys and Cranmer followed. These leaders in the English Reformation were men of learning, and most of them had been highly esteemed for zeal or piety in the Romish communion. Their opposition to the papacy was the result of their knowledge of the errors of the "holy see." Their acquaintance with the mysteries of Babylon gave greater power to their testimonies against her. {GC 248.2}

 

     
11    拉替麦说:“现在我要发一个意外的问题,谁是全英国最殷勤的主教呢?……我看你们都在注意听我提出他的名字。……我告诉你们,他就是魔鬼。……魔鬼从来没有离开他的教区;……你无论什么时候去看他,他总是在岗位上;……他总是在工作着。……我敢保证你们绝对找不到他在哪里空闲着。……哪里有魔鬼居留,……哪里就要抛弃书籍,拿出蜡烛,高搁《圣经》,拿出念珠;熄灭福音的光,点起蜡烛的光,即使在晌午也要把它点起来;……除掉基督的十字架,高举炼狱的谬论来勒索金钱;……不给赤身露体的人衣服穿,不帮助贫穷软弱的人,却要设置神龛,装饰木偶石像;除掉上帝的法典,和他最神圣的言语;高举人的遗传和人的律法。……惟愿我们的传道人员都能象撒但撒稗子和萎草一样,殷勤地去撒真理的好种。”(注六)     "Now I would ask a strange question," said Latimer. "Who is the most diligent bishop and prelate in all England? . . . I see you listening and hearkening that I should name him. . . . I will tell you: it is the devil. . . . He is never out of his diocese; call for him when you will, he is ever at home; . . . he is ever at his plow. . . . Ye shall never find him idle, I warrant you. . . . Where the devil is resident, . . . there away with books, and up with candles; away with Bibles, and up with beads; away with the light of the gospel, and up with the light of candles, yea, at noondays; . . . down with Christ's cross, up with purgatory pickpurse; . . . away with clothing the naked, the poor, and impotent, up with decking of images and gay garnishing of stocks and stones; up with man's traditions and his laws, down with God's traditions and His most holy word. . . . O that our prelates would be as diligent to sow the corn of good doctrine, as Satan is to sow cockle and darnel!"--Ibid., "Sermon of the Plough."
     
12    这些改革家所维护的伟大原则,也就是瓦典西人,威克里夫,约翰胡斯,路德,萨文黎和他们的同工所坚守的同一原则:以《圣经》为绝无错误的权威,为一切信仰与行为的准绳。他们否认教皇,会议,教父,君王在宗教的事上有控制人信仰的权柄。《圣经》乃是这些改革家的根据,他们用《圣经》的教训来测验一切的道理和主张。当这些圣徒在火刑柱上殉身的时候,这种对上帝和《圣经》的信仰支持了他们。当火焰快要停止他们的声音时,拉替麦对一个与他同时殉道的弟兄说:“放心吧,借着上帝的恩典,我们今天必在英国点燃光明的火炬,我深信这是永远不能被人扑灭的。”(注七)     The grand principle maintained by these Reformers--the same that had been held by the Waldenses, by Wycliffe, by John Huss, by Luther, Zwingli, and those who united with them--was the infallible authority of the Holy Scriptures as a rule of faith and practice. They denied the right of popes, councils, Fathers, and kings, to control the conscience in matters of religion. The Bible was their authority, and by its teaching they tested all doctrines and all claims. Faith in God and His word sustained these holy men as they yielded up their lives at the stake. "Be of good comfort," exclaimed Latimer to his fellow martyr as the flames were about to silence their voices, "we shall this day light such a candle, by God's grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out." --Works of Hugh Latimer, vol. 1, p. xiii. {GC 249.1}
     
13    在苏格兰,科伦巴和他的同工所撒的真理种子始终没有完全被消灭。在英格兰的教会屈服于罗马教数百年之后,苏格兰的教会仍保持了他们的自由。虽然如此,到了第十二世纪,罗马教就在这里建立起来了,而其专横独断,并不比她在其他国家的统治稍有逊色。没有一个地方的黑暗比这里更为浓厚。但后来终于有一线光明穿透了黑暗,使人对将来生出希望。威克里夫一派的洛拉尔德人,从英格兰带来的《圣经》和威克里夫的作品,对保持福音知识的工作有很大的贡献,而且每一个世纪都有为福音作见证并殉身的人。     In Scotland the seeds of truth scattered by Columba and his colaborers had never been wholly destroyed. For hundreds of years after the churches of England submitted to Rome, those of Scotland maintained their freedom. In the twelfth century, however, popery became established here, and in no country did it exercise a more absolute sway. Nowhere was the darkness deeper. Still there came rays of light to pierce the gloom and give promise of the coming day. The Lollards, coming from England with the Bible and the teachings of Wycliffe, did much to preserve the knowledge of the gospel, and every century had its witnesses and martyrs. {GC 249.2}
     
14    伟大的改革运动在欧洲大陆开始之后,路德的作品就到了苏格兰,以后廷达尔的英文《新约圣经》也到了。这些无声的使者在教廷不加注意的时候,静静地跋涉山川,到处把苏格兰几乎熄灭的真理火炬重新点燃起来,消除了罗马教四百年的压迫所加给他们的毒害。     With the opening of the Great Reformation came the writings of Luther, and then Tyndale's English New Testament. Unnoticed by the hierarchy, these messengers silently traversed the mountains and valleys, kindling into new life the torch of truth so nearly extinguished in Scotland, and undoing the work which Rome for four centuries of oppression had done. {GC 249.3
     
15    后来又有殉道者的血使改革运动受到新的鼓励。罗马教的领袖忽然警觉到这威胁着他们事业的危险,就把苏格兰一些最优秀,最尊贵的儿女,用火刑处死。而他们这样作却无异建立了许多讲台,这些垂死之人从其上所发出的见证,使全地的人都听见了,殉道者的话感动了众人的心,使他们以不屈不挠的决心,努力挣脱罗马的枷锁。     Then the blood of martyrs gave fresh impetus to the movement. The papist leaders, suddenly awakening to the danger that threatened their cause, brought to the stake some of the noblest and most honored of the sons of Scotland. They did but erect a pulpit, from which the words of these dying witnesses were heard throughout the land, thrilling the souls of the people with an undying purpose to cast off the shackles of Rome. {GC 249.4}
     
16    出身贵族,品格高尚的哈密尔敦和威沙特,以及一行列比较卑微的信徒,都在火刑柱上牺牲了他们的性命。但是从焚威沙特的火堆上出来了一个火焰所不能烧灭的人,这个人将要在上帝的指导之下敲响苏格兰罗马教的丧钟。     Hamilton and Wishart, princely in character as in birth, with a long line of humbler disciples, yielded up their lives at the stake. But from the burning pile of Wishart there came one whom the flames were not to silence, one who under God was to strike the death knell of popery in Scotland. {GC 250.1}
     
17    诺克斯约翰曾离弃了教会的遗传和玄奥学说,而饱尝上帝圣言的真理;威沙特不挠的教训坚定了他的决心,使他放弃罗马教而与那些受逼迫的改正教徒并肩工作。     John Knox had turned away from the traditions and mysticisms of the church, to feed upon the truths of God's word; and the teaching of Wishart had confirmed his determination to forsake the communion of Rome and join himself to the persecuted Reformers. {GC 250.2}
     
18    他的友人竭力劝他担任传道的工作,他却战兢退缩,不敢负起这样的责任,直到他经过多日的隐居和痛苦的奋斗之后,才答应了。但是他一经接受这任务,就以不屈的决心和大无畏的精神勇往直前,始终不渝。这一个忠实的改革家毫不畏惧世人。在他周围猛烈地焚烧着殉道者的火焰,反而使他越发热心。当暴君的刀斧放在他颈上恫吓他时,他仍屹然坚立,顽强地抵挡多方面的打击,大力摧毁拜偶像的恶习。     Urged by his companions to take the office of preacher, he shrank with trembling from its responsibility, and it was only after days of seclusion and painful conflict with himself that he consented. But having once accepted the position, he pressed forward with inflexible determination and undaunted courage as long as life continued. This truehearted Reformer feared not the face of man. The fires of martyrdom, blazing around him, served only to quicken his zeal to greater intensity. With the tyrant's ax held menacingly over his head, he stood his ground, striking sturdy blows on the right hand and on the left to demolish idolatry. {GC 250.3}
     
19    诺克斯约翰终于被带到苏格兰女王面前,过去虽有许多改正教的领袖在她之前热忱减退了,但诺克斯却在女王面前为真理作了正确的见证。诺克斯是一个富贵不能淫,威武不能屈的勇士。女王斥他为“叛教徒”;说他曾教导人接受国家所禁止的宗教,这样他就是违犯了上帝吩咐他百姓顺从君王的命令。诺克斯坚决地回答说:     When brought face to face with the queen of Scotland, in whose presence the zeal of many a leader of the Protestants had abated, John Knox bore unswerving witness for the truth. He was not to be won by caresses; he quailed not before threats. The queen charged him with heresy. He had taught the people to receive a religion prohibited by the state, she declared, and had thus transgressed God's command enjoining subjects to obey their princes. Knox answered firmly: {GC 250.4}
     
20    “纯正宗教的原动力和权威,不是从世上的君王来的,乃是从永生的上帝而来,所以百姓就没有义务按照他们君王的嗜好,来决定自己的宗教信仰。因为君王往往是最不明白上帝纯正宗教的。……如果亚伯拉罕的一切子孙因为长久作法老的百姓,而信了法老的宗教,你想世上所存在的将是什么宗教?或者,使徒时代的人都相信了罗马皇帝的宗教,那么地上会有什么宗教?……所以你可以看出,上帝虽然命令百姓要顺服君王,但他们却没有相信君王所相信之宗教的义务。”     "As right religion took neither original strength nor authority from worldly princes, but from the eternal God alone, so are not subjects bound to frame their religion according to the appetites of their princes. For oft it is that princes are the most ignorant of all others in God's true religion. . . . If all the seed of Abraham had been of the religion of Pharaoh, whose subjects they long were, I pray you, madam, what religion would there have been in the world? Or if all men in the days of the apostles had been of the religion of the Roman emperors, what religion would there have been upon the face of the earth? . . . And so, madam, ye may perceive that subjects are not bound to the religion of their princes, albeit they are commanded to give them obedience." {GC 250.5}
     
21    女王马利说:“你这样解释《圣经》,而他们(罗马教的教师)那样解释;我到底应该相信谁?谁可以作裁判呢?”     Said Mary: "Ye interpret the Scriptures in one manner, and they [the Roman Catholic teachers] interpret in another; whom shall I believe, and who shall be judge?" {GC 251.1}
     
22    改革家回答说:“你应该相信那在《圣经》内明白发言的上帝;若是离开了《圣经》的教训,那么你就不要信这个说法,也不要信那个说法。上帝的话本身是很清楚的;如果有一处经文似乎不易明白,那永远不会自相矛盾的圣灵就必在另一段经文中把它解释得更清楚,所以除了对于那些顽梗刚愎,自愿留在无知之中的人以外,《圣经》并没有什么可怀疑的地方。”(注八)     "Ye shall believe God, that plainly speaketh in His word," answered the Reformer; "and farther than the word teaches you, ye neither shall believe the one nor the other. The word of God is plain in itself; and if there appear any obscurity in one place, the Holy Ghost, which is never contrary to Himself, explains the same more clearly in other places, so that there can remain no doubt but unto such as obstinately remain ignorant."--David Laing, The Collected Works of John Knox, vol. 2, pp. 281, 284. {GC 251.2}
     
23    这就是那无畏的改革家冒着性命的危险,在女王耳边所讲的真理。他以同样坚强的勇气继续贯彻他的目的,始终不渝地儆醒祈祷,为主作战,直到苏格兰挣脱了罗马教的桎梏。     Such were the truths that the fearless Reformer, at the peril of his life, spoke in the ear of royalty. With the same undaunted courage he kept to his purpose, praying and fighting the battles of the Lord, until Scotland was free from popery. {GC 251.3}
     
24    英格兰立新教为国教之后,逼迫的事只是减少而已,并没有完全停止。国教虽然革除了许多罗马教的道理,但仍保留了不少仪式。教皇的主权固然被拒绝了,但皇帝竟登上了教会元首的地位。教会的礼节中,仍有许多远离福音纯正和简朴的地方。他们还没有明白宗教自由的大原则。信奉新教的统治者虽然很少使用罗马教所用以反对“叛教徒”的残酷手段,但人人按照良心自由敬拜上帝的权利,却没有得到当局的尊重。众人必须接受国教所规定的教义,并遵守所设置的敬拜仪式。反对国教的人或多或少地都遭受了逼迫达数百年之久。     In England the establishment of Protestantism as the national religion diminished, but did not wholly stop, persecution. While many of the doctrines of Rome had been renounced, not a few of its forms were retained. The supremacy of the pope was rejected, but in his place the monarch was enthroned as the head of the church. In the service of the church there was still a wide departure from the purity and simplicity of the gospel. The great principle of religious liberty was not yet understood. Though the horrible cruelties which Rome employed against heresy were resorted to but rarely by Protestant rulers, yet the right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience was not acknowledged. All were required to accept the doctrines and observe the forms of worship prescribed by the established church. Dissenters suffered persecution, to a greater or less extent, for hundreds of years. {GC 251.4}
     
25    在第十七世纪,有成千的传道人被迫离开他们的岗位。百姓则除了国教所规定的聚会之外,不准参加任何其他的宗教集会,否则,就要科以极重的罚金,或遭监禁放逐的处分。那些不愿停止聚集敬拜上帝的忠心信徒,就被迫在黑暗的小巷、偏僻的阁楼,有时半夜在森林中聚会。这些遭受逼迫分散的主的儿女,常在树林深处的荫蔽之下,就是在上帝大自然的殿中聚会,倾吐心意,祈祷赞美。他们虽然这样小心提防,但仍有许多人为他们的信仰受苦。监狱人满,家庭离散,许多人被放逐到异乡。然而上帝与他的子民同在,逼迫无法消灭他们的见证。许多人被逐渡洋到美洲去,在那里奠立了政治和宗教自由的基础,后来这两种自由就成了该国的保障与光荣。     In the seventeenth century thousands of pastors were expelled from their positions. The people were forbidden, on pain of heavy fines, imprisonment, and banishment, to attend any religious meetings except such as were sanctioned by the church. Those faithful souls who could not refrain from gathering to worship God were compelled to meet in dark alleys, in obscure garrets, and at some seasons in the woods at midnight. In the sheltering depths of the forest, a temple of God's own building, those scattered and persecuted children of the Lord assembled to pour out their souls in prayer and praise. But despite all their precautions, many suffered for their faith. The jails were crowded. Families were broken up. Many were banished to foreign lands. Yet God was with His people, and persecution could not prevail to silence their testimony. Many were driven across the ocean to America and here laid the foundations of civil and religious liberty which have been the bulwark and glory of this country. {GC 252.1}
     
26    正如使徒的日子一样,逼迫反而推广了福音。本仁约翰在挤满了荒淫的罪人和凶恶的重犯的污浊监狱之中,却能呼吸天上的空气;他在那里写了一本奇妙的寓言,就是从将亡城到天城的《圣游记》。从裴德福监狱所发出的这个声音,以生动的感化力向人的心灵说话达二百余年之久。本仁所著的《圣游记》和《罪魁领受大恩》这两本书,曾引领了许多人走到生命的路上。     Again, as in apostolic days, persecution turned out to the furtherance of the gospel. In a loathsome dungeon crowded with profligates and felons, John Bunyan breathed the very atmosphere of heaven; and there he wrote his wonderful allegory of the pilgrim's journey from the land of destruction to the celestial city. For over two hundred years that voice from Bedford jail has spoken with thrilling power to the hearts of men. Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners have guided many feet into the path of life. {GC 252.2}
     
27    巴克斯特,弗拉未尔,阿利因,以及其他有才能,有学识,并有丰富基督徒经验的人,相继兴起,为那“从前一次交付圣徒的真道”作勇敢的争辩。这些人虽然被世上的统治者剥夺公权,失去法律的保障,但他们所成就的工作乃是永远不能磨灭的。弗拉未尔的《生命之泉》和《蒙恩之法》,曾教导了成千的人把自己的心灵交给基督保守着。巴克斯特的《改正的牧师》,曾使许多渴望上帝工作复兴的人获益不浅,他所著的《圣徒永远的安息》,使许多人得到那“为上帝的子民存留”的安息。     Baxter, Flavel, Alleine, and other men of talent, education, and deep Christian experience stood up in valiant defense of the faith which was once delivered to the saints. The work accomplished by these men, proscribed and outlawed by the rulers of this world, can never perish. Flavel's Fountain of Life and Method of Grace have taught thousands how to commit the keeping of their souls to Christ. Baxter's Reformed Pastor has proved a blessing to many who desire a revival of the work of God, and his Saints' Everlasting Rest has done its work in leading souls to the "rest" that remaineth for the people of God. {GC 252.3}
     
28    一百年之后,在属灵的黑暗日子,怀特腓德和卫斯理弟兄二人,出来为上帝作传播真光的人。当时英国的人民在国教的管理之下,已经渐渐陷到宗教堕落的地步,甚至他们的宗教与异教几乎没有什么分别。自然宗教成了教牧人员喜爱研究的题目,并组成了他们神学的主要部分。上流社会的人蔑视敬虔,并自夸高人一等,不受他们所谓“敬虔之狂热”的影响。至于下级社会的人则大都无知,并沉溺于恶习之中,而教会却已没有勇气或信心去挽救既倒的狂澜了。     A hundred years later, in a day of great spiritual darkness, Whitefield and the Wesleys appeared as light bearers for God. Under the rule of the established church the people of England had lapsed into a state of religious declension hardly to be distinguished from heathenism. Natural religion was the favorite study of the clergy, and included most of their theology. The higher classes sneered at piety, and prided themselves on being above what they called its fanaticism. The lower classes were grossly ignorant and abandoned to vice, while the church had no courage or faith any longer to support the downfallen cause of truth. {GC 253.1}
     
29    路德所清楚教导的因信称义的伟大道理,这时几乎完全被忘记了。罗马教靠善行得救的原则已经取而代之。怀特腓德和卫斯理弟兄原来都是国教的教友,并是诚心寻求上帝恩眷的人,他们所受的教训,是教他们靠赖道德的生活和宗教的仪式去获得这种福惠。     The great doctrine of justification by faith, so clearly taught by Luther, had been almost wholly lost sight of; and the Romish principle of trusting to good works for salvation, had taken its place. Whitefield and the Wesleys, who were members of the established church, were sincere seekers for the favor of God, and this they had been taught was to be secured by a virtuous life and an observance of the ordinances of religion. {GC 253.2}
     
30    有一次,当卫斯理查理患病,预测将要绝命的时候,有人问他永生的希望寄托在哪里。他的回答是:“我已经尽到我最大的努力事奉上帝。”卫斯理看出那发问的朋友似乎不完全满意他的回答,心中便想到:“什么?难道我的努力还不足以作为他希望的根据么?难道他要剥夺我努力的成绩么?我没有其他可以依靠的了。(注九)这足以说明那笼罩着教会的是何等深沉的黑暗,这黑暗把救赎的真理隐蔽了,把基督的荣耀抢去了,并使人心转离了他们唯一救恩的希望,──钉十架之救赎主的宝血。     When Charles Wesley at one time fell ill, and anticipated that death was approaching, he was asked upon what he rested his hope of eternal life. His answer was: "I have used my best endeavors to serve God." As the friend who had put the question seemed not to be fully satisfied with his answer, Wesley thought: "What! are not my endeavors a sufficient ground of hope? Would he rob me of my endeavors? I have nothing else to trust to."--John Whitehead, Life of the Rev. Charles Wesley, page 102. Such was the dense darkness that had settled down on the church, hiding the atonement, robbing Christ of His glory, and turning the minds of men from their only hope of salvation--the blood of the crucified Redeemer. {GC 253.3}
     
31    卫斯理和他的同伴看出真宗教是内心的宗教,而且上帝律法的范围不但管束人的言语行为,而也管束人的心思意念。他们既感觉到内心必须圣洁,象行为必须端正一样,他们就认真地下手过一种新的生活。他们想用殷勤祈祷的努力来克制本性的邪情恶欲。他们过着一种克己,慈善,自卑的生活,并且非常严肃拘谨的遵守着许多规律,他们认为这样就可以得到他们最大的愿望──那能使他们得蒙上帝喜悦的圣洁。可是他们并没有达到所追求的目的。他们企图使自己脱离罪恶的谴责,或是打破罪恶的权势,但结果都是徒然。他们这时挣扎的情况,正如路德在艾尔福修道院小室里的经验一样。使他们心灵受痛苦的,也就是那使他极度不安的问题:“人在上帝面前怎能成为义呢?”(伯9:2)     Wesley and his associates were led to see that true religion is seated in the heart, and that God's law extends to the thoughts as well as to the words and actions. Convinced of the necessity of holiness of heart, as well as correctness of outward deportment, they set out in earnest upon a new life. By the most diligent and prayerful efforts they endeavored to subdue the evils of the natural heart. They lived a life of self-denial, charity, and humiliation, observing with great rigor and exactness every measure which they thought could be helpful to them in obtaining what they most desired--that holiness which could secure the favor of God. But they did not obtain the object which they sought. In vain were their endeavors to free themselves from the condemnation of sin or to break its power. It was the same struggle which Luther had experienced in his cell at Erfurt. It was the same question which had tortured his soul--"How should man be just before God?" Job. 9:2. {GC 254.1}
     
32    那在改正教坛上行将熄灭之上帝真理的火,这时却要由波希米亚的基督徒世世相传的古代火炬重新点燃起来。在改革运动发起之后,波希米亚的新教受到了罗马侵略军的蹂躏。凡不肯放弃真理的人,便不得不逃亡异乡。其中有一些人逃到德国的撒克逊去避难,在那里保持了古代的信仰。卫斯理和他的同伴所得的真光,就是从这些基督徒的后人(即摩拉维亚教派)传来的。     The fires of divine truth, well-nigh extinguished upon the altars of Protestantism, were to be rekindled from the ancient torch handed down the ages by the Bohemian Christians. After the Reformation, Protestantism in Bohemia had been trampled out by the hordes of Rome. All who refused to renounce the truth were forced to flee. Some of these, finding refuge in Saxony, there maintained the ancient faith. It was from the descendants of these Christians that light came to Wesley and his associates. {GC 254.2}
     
33    卫斯理约翰和卫斯理查理在被立为牧师之后,奉命往美洲去。同船的有一班摩拉维亚教派的人。这一次海上起了狂风,卫斯理约翰既面临死亡,自觉没有与上帝和好的把握。相反地,这些德国人却表现了他所完全没有经验过的镇定和依靠。     John and Charles Wesley, after being ordained to the ministry, were sent on a mission to America. On board the ship was a company of Moravians. Violent storms were encountered on the passage, and John Wesley, brought face to face with death, felt that he had not the assurance of peace with God. The Germans, on the contrary, manifested a calmness and trust to which he was a stranger.
     
34    他说:“我久已注意到他们那极其真诚的行为。他们时常为其他旅客进行英国人所不屑去做的卑贱服务,证明他们具有真实谦卑的精神;为这些工作,他们不要,也不肯接受任何报酬,并说,这对于他们骄傲的心有良好的用处,而且他们可爱的救主为他们所作的还要更多呢。在旅程中,他们每天都有表现温柔的精神际遇,可是任何侮辱也不能改变他们。如果他们被推,被打,或被摔倒,他们站起来就走了,口中连一句怨言也没有。这时又有一个机会可以试验他们是否能免于惧怕的心,象他们胜过骄傲,恼怒,和报复的心一样。正当他们开会唱诗的时候,海上狂风大作,波浪翻腾,主要的桅杆折断了,甲板上满了水,好像是深渊已经吞灭了我们。在英国人中,立时发出了可怕的尖锐喊叫声。可是德国人却泰然地歌唱下去。后来我问他们中间的一位说:‘那时你不怕么?’他回答说:‘感谢上帝,我没有害怕。’我又问他说:‘可是你们的妇人孩子也不怕么?’他温和地回答说:‘不,我们的妇人孩子是不怕死的。’”(注十)     "I had long before," he says, "observed the great seriousness of their behavior. Of their humility they had given a continual proof, by performing those servile offices for the other passengers which none of the English would undertake; for which they desired and would receive no pay, saying it was good for their proud hearts, and their loving Saviour had done more for them. And every day had given them occasion of showing a meekness which no injury could move. If they were pushed, struck, or thrown about, they rose again and went away; but no complaint was found in their mouth. There was now an opportunity of trying whether they were delivered from the spirit of fear, as well as from that of pride, anger, and revenge. In the midst of the psalm wherewith their service began, the sea broke over, split the mainsail in pieces, covered the ship, and poured in between the decks as if the great deep had already swallowed us up. A terrible screaming began among the English. The Germans calmly sang on. I asked one of them afterwards, 'Were you not afraid?' He answered, 'I thank God, no.' I asked, 'But were not your women and children afraid?' He replied mildly, 'No; our women and children are not afraid to die.'"--Whitehead, Life of the Rev. John Wesley, page 10. {GC 255.1}
     
35    到了美洲塞芬那,卫斯理与这些摩拉维亚教派的人曾暂时同住,他因他们基督徒的生活深受感动。他们的宗教聚会与英国教会那种没有生气的形式主义大不相同,关于这一点,卫斯理写道:“整个聚会的非常简单和严肃的精神,几乎使我忘掉了一千七百年的距离,而想象自己是在参加那些不重外表和不拘形式的聚会,乃是制帐棚的保罗,或是作渔夫的彼得所主持的;然而他们确有圣灵和能力的明证。(注十一)     Upon arriving in Savannah, Wesley for a short time abode with the Moravians, and was deeply impressed with their Christian deportment. Of one of their religious services, in striking contrast to the lifeless formalism of the Church of England, he wrote: "The great simplicity as well as solemnity of the whole almost made me forget the seventeen hundred years between, and imagine myself in one of those assemblies where form and state were not; but Paul, the tentmaker, or Peter, the fisherman, presided; yet with the demonstration of the Spirit and of power."--Ibid., pages 11, 12. {GC 255.2}
     
36    卫斯理回到英国,在摩拉维亚教派的一个传教士的教导之下,更加清楚地明白了《圣经》中的信仰。他看出,必须放弃一切依靠自己行为得救的心理,而完全依靠那“除去世人罪孽”的“上帝的羔羊。”在伦敦摩拉维亚教会的一次聚会中,有人宣读路德的一篇讲章,叙述上帝的灵在信徒心中所施行的改变。卫斯理听了,心中就燃起了信心,他说:“我觉得心中火热,我觉得自己确已完全靠基督得救;上帝也给我凭据,他已除去我的罪,并救我脱离罪和死的律了。”(注十二)     On his return to England, Wesley, under the instruction of a Moravian preacher, arrived at a clearer understanding of Bible faith. He was convinced that he must renounce all dependence upon his own works for salvation and must trust wholly to "the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world." At a meeting of the Moravian society in London a statement was read from Luther, describing the change which the Spirit of God works in the heart of the believer. As Wesley listened, faith was kindled in his soul. "I felt my heart strangely warmed," he says. "I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone, for salvation: and an assurance was given me, that He had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death."-- Ibid., page 52. {GC 255.3}
     
37    卫斯理经过多年疲倦,无聊,不得慰藉的努力,──多年的严格克己,又受了多年的辱骂和委屈,──他一贯以寻求上帝为唯一的目的。如今他已经找到上帝;并已发现他过去想靠祷告,禁食,施舍,克己而得的恩典,乃是“不用银钱,不用价值”得来的恩赐。     Through long years of wearisome and comfortless striving-- years of rigorous self-denial, of reproach and humiliation-- Wesley had steadfastly adhered to his one purpose of seeking God. Now he had found Him; and he found that the grace which he had toiled to win by prayers and fasts, by almsdeeds and self-abnegation, was a gift, "without money and without price." {GC 256.1}
     
38    他一建立了在基督里的信心,于是就心中火热,渴欲到各处去传播上帝白白赐恩的荣耀福音。他说:“我以全世界为我的教区,无论我在世界的哪一部分,我认为向一切愿意听讲的人宣讲救恩的喜信,乃是合宜的,这是我的权力,也是我的义务。”(注十三)     Once established in the faith of Christ, his whole soul burned with the desire to spread everywhere a knowledge of the glorious gospel of God's free grace. "I look upon all the world as my parish," he said; "in whatever part of it I am, I judge it meet, right, and my bounden duty, to declare unto all that are willing to hear, the glad tidings of salvation."-- Ibid., page 74. {GC 256.2}
     
39    他继续过着他那种严肃,克己的生活,但不再作为信仰的基础,而是作为信仰的效果;不再作为成圣的根源,而是作为成圣的果子。而这种恩典必要在顺从上显明出来。卫斯理终身宣传他所领受的伟大真理──因信基督赎罪的血而称义,并因圣灵在人心中所运行更新的能力,而使生活结出与基督榜样相符的果子。     He continued his strict and self-denying life, not now as the ground, but the result of faith; not the root, but the fruit of holiness. The grace of God in Christ is the foundation of the Christian's hope, and that grace will be manifested in obedience. Wesley's life was devoted to the preaching of the great truths which he had received--justification through faith in the atoning blood of Christ, and the renewing power of the Holy Spirit upon the heart, bringing forth fruit in a life conformed to the example of Christ. {GC 256.3}
     
40    怀特腓德和卫斯理弟兄过去既对自己陷入危亡的状况经受长期和严厉的自责,就为自己的工作作了准备;同时为要使他们能象基督的精兵一样忍受苦难起见,他们已经受了火炼的试验,在大学里并在开始服务的时候遭讥诮,侮辱和逼迫。他们的同学轻蔑地称他们和一些同情他们的人为“美以美派”(英文“纪律严格之意”)──现在这倒成了英美各国一个最大的基督教宗派所珍重的名字。  他们既是英国国教的教友,就固守她敬拜的仪式,但主已经在《圣经》中向他们提出一个更高的标准。圣灵督促他们传讲基督并他钉十字架的福音。有至高者的能力随着他们。千万的人信服并真心悔改了。这些羊群必须受到保护,脱离残暴豺狼的伤害。卫斯理本来没有意思成立一个新的宗派,只是在所谓“美以美团契”的名义之下把信徒组织起来。     Whitefield and the Wesleys had been prepared for their work by long and sharp personal convictions of their own lost condition; and that they might be able to endure hardness as good soldiers of Christ, they had been subjected to the fiery ordeal of scorn, derision, and persecution, both in the university and as they were entering the ministry. They and a few others who sympathized with them were contemptuously called Methodists by their ungodly fellow students--a name which is at the present time regarded as honorable by one of the largest denominations in England and America. {GC 256.4}
     
41    他们既是英国国教的教友,就固守她敬拜的仪式,但主已经在《圣经》中向他们提出一个更高的标准。圣灵督促他们传讲基督并他钉十字架的福音。有至高者的能力随着他们。千万的人信服并真心悔改了。这些羊群必须受到保护,脱离残暴豺狼的伤害。卫斯理本来没有意思成立一个新的宗派,只是在所谓“美以美团契”的名义之下把信徒组织起来。     As members of the Church of England they were strongly attached to her forms of worship, but the Lord had presented before them in His word a higher standard. The Holy Spirit urged them to preach Christ and Him crucified. The power of the Highest attended their labors. Thousands were convicted and truly converted. It was necessary that these sheep be protected from ravening wolves. Wesley had no thought of forming a new denomination, but he organized them under what was called the Methodist Connection. {GC 257.1}
     
42    这些传教士所遭遇之国教的反对,乃是不可思议而难以忍受的;但上帝凭着他的大智慧执掌万事,使改革工作从教会内部开始。如果改革工作完全由教会外面而来,它就不能深入最有需要的地方。但领导奋兴的传道士既是教会的工作人员,并在教会范围之内随地有机会进行工作,所以真理就能进入那借其他方法所不能进入的地方。有一部分教牧人员在属灵的麻木状态中奋兴起来,就在他们自己的教区热心传道。那些因形式主义而死气沉沉的教会都变成生气勃勃了。     Mysterious and trying was the opposition which these preachers encountered from the established church; yet God, in His wisdom, had overruled events to cause the reform to begin within the church itself. Had it come wholly from without, it would not have penetrated where it was so much needed. But as the revival preachers were churchmen, and labored within the pale of the church wherever they could find opportunity, the truth had an entrance where the doors would otherwise have remained closed. Some of the clergy were roused from their moral stupor and became zealous preachers in their own parishes. Churches that had been petrified by formalism were quickened into life. {GC 257.2}
     
43    些造成分裂;但是他们既在基督的门下学会了温柔,所以互相忍耐和彼此相爱的心终于使他们言归于好。正当谬论和罪孽充斥各地,罪人行将败亡的时候,他们哪里还有工夫彼此争辩呢?       In Wesley's time, as in all ages of the church's history, men of different gifts performed their appointed work. They did not harmonize upon every point of doctrine, but all were moved by the Spirit of God, and united in the absorbing aim to win souls to Christ. The differences between Whitefield and the Wesleys threatened at one time to create alienation; but as they learned meekness in the school of Christ, mutual forbearance and charity reconciled them. They had no time to dispute, while error and iniquity were teeming everywhere, and sinners were going down to ruin. {GC 257.3}
     
44    这些上帝的仆人所行走的乃是一条崎岖的道路。许多有势力和有学识的人尽力要反对他们。过了一时,许多教牧人员也对他们表示坚决的敌意,多处教堂的门就关闭起来,要拒绝这纯洁的信仰和宣传的人。许多教牧人员在讲台上公然排斥他们,结果挑动了社会中黑暗、无知和罪恶的力量。卫斯理约翰多次完全是因上帝为他所施行的奇事,方能幸免于死。有一次当一群暴徒前来攻击他,他似乎没有逃生之路时,有一位天使装成人的形状来到他旁边,于是暴徒倒退,上帝的仆人就得以从危险之地平平安安地走出来了。     The servants of God trod a rugged path. Men of influence and learning employed their powers against them. After a time many of the clergy manifested determined hostility, and the doors of the churches were closed against a pure faith and those who proclaimed it. The course of the clergy in denouncing them from the pulpit aroused the elements of darkness, ignorance, and iniquity. Again and again did John Wesley escape death by a miracle of God's mercy. When the rage of the mob was excited against him, and there seemed no way of escape, an angel in human form came to his side, the mob fell back, and the servant of Christ passed in safety from the place of danger. {GC 258.1}

 

     
45    关于上帝拯救他脱离疯狂暴徒之手的许多经验,他提到一个例子说:“当我们循着一条滑溜的小道下山进城时,许多人想要把我推下去;明知我一跌倒,就必永远起不来了。但我至终没有失足,连滑也没有滑过一次,直到我完全脱离了他们的手。……虽然许多人想要拉着我的领子或衣服而把我拖倒,但总也没有抓住;只有一个人抓到我燕尾服后部的半翼,就被他扯掉了;另一半翼的口袋里有一张钞票,却只被他扯掉一半。……一个孔武有力的人正在我后边,用一根橡木大棒打我好几次;他若能用这根棒子打中我后脑一下,他就不必再打下去了。但是每一次他的棒都偏了过去,我也不知道怎么会这样;因为我那时无法偏左或偏右。……另有一个人从人群中挤了过来举手要打,可是忽然他的手落了下来,只是摸着我的头,说:‘他的头发多么柔软啊!’……那些最先改变了敌意的人都是城中的好汉,每次暴动总是他们领头的,其中的一个人还是斗拳场中的选手呢。……”     Of his deliverance from the enraged mob on one of these occasions, Wesley said: "Many endeavored to throw me down while we were going down hill on a slippery path to the town; as well judging that if I was once on the ground, I should hardly rise any more. But I made no stumble at all, nor the least slip, till I was entirely out of their hands. . . . Although many strove to lay hold on my collar or clothes, to pull me down, they could not fasten at all: only one got fast hold of the flap of my waistcoat, which was soon left in his hand; the other flap, in the pocket of which was a bank note, was torn but half off. . . . A lusty man just behind, struck at me several times, with a large oaken stick; with which if he had struck me once on the back part of my head, it would have saved him all further trouble. But every time, the blow was turned aside, I know not how; for I could not move to the right hand or left. . . . Another came rushing through the press, and raising his arm to strike, on a sudden let it drop, and only stroked my head, saying, 'What soft hair he has!' . . . The very first men whose hearts were turned were the heroes of the town, the captains of the rabble on all occasions, one of them having been a prize fighter at the bear gardens. . . . {GC 258.2}
     
46    “上帝用了何等温和的手段预备我们去实行他的旨意啊!两年前,有一块砖头打中了我的肩头;过了一年,又有一块石头打中了我的鼻梁。上一个月,我挨了一拳,今天晚上挨了两拳,一拳在进村之前,一拳在离村之后;可是都没有受伤;因为头一个人虽然用他的全力捶击我的胸膛,另一个人打中我的嘴,以致当时鲜血涌流,但我却没有觉到一点疼痛,好像是他们只用了一根稻草碰了我一下似的。(注十四)     "By how gentle degrees does God prepare us for His will! Two years ago, a piece of brick grazed my shoulders. It was a year after that the stone struck me between the eyes. Last month I received one blow, and this evening two, one before we came into the town, and one after we were gone out; but both were as nothing: for though one man struck me on the breast with all his might, and the other on the mouth with such force that the blood gushed out immediately, I felt no more pain from either of the blows than if they had touched me with a straw."--John Wesley, Works, vol. 3, pp. 297, 298. {GC 259.1}
     
47    早期的美以美会教徒──平信徒和传道人一样时常遭受国教教友和因他们的谰言而激怒的暴徒的讥诮与逼迫。他们常被传到法庭受审──当时的法庭徒有其名,实际上根本不按律法行事。他们时常遭受逼迫他们之人的残害。暴徒挨家挨户捣毁家具什物,任意抢掠并蛮横虐待男女和儿童。有几次他们竟张贴布告,号召凡愿帮助打破窗户抢劫美以美会信徒之住家的,某日某时在某地集合。这些公开违反国家和上帝律法的行为竟被当局默许,连一句责备的话也没有。他们竟发动一种有组织的逼迫,而他们所逼迫之对象的唯一“错误”,就是设法把罪人的脚步从灭亡的路上转向圣洁的路上去。     The Methodists of those early days--people as well as preachers--endured ridicule and persecution, alike from church members and from the openly irreligious who were inflamed by their misrepresentations. They were arraigned before courts of justice--such only in name, for justice was rare in the courts of that time. Often they suffered violence from their persecutors. Mobs went from house to house, destroying furniture and goods, plundering whatever they chose, and brutally abusing men, women, and children. In some instances, public notices were posted, calling upon those who desired to assist in breaking the windows and robbing the houses of the Methodists, to assemble at a given time and place. These open violations of both human and divine law were allowed to pass without a reprimand. A systematic persecution was carried on against a people whose only fault was that of seeking to turn the feet of sinners from the path of destruction to the path of holiness. {GC 259.2}
     
48    卫斯理约翰提到那控告他和他同伴的罪状说:“有人说这等人所传的道理是虚伪,错谬而狂热的;又说,这些是新奇的教义,从来没有人听过,到了最近才有人传讲;又说他们是教友派,狂热派,罗马教徒。这整套荒谬的控告已经证明为毫无根据,我们所传的道理每一部分都完全显明为《圣经》中明白的道理,并且是按着我们教会的解经法来解释的。所以只要《圣经》是真的,我们的道理就不可能是虚伪或错谬的。”“其他的控告说:‘他们的道理太严格了;他们把天国的道路弄得太狭窄了。’这的确是基本的原因,(而且有一个时期这几乎是他们反对真理的唯一原因,)它也是一切其他反对真理之种种借口的实在动机。但是这些信徒是不是把天国的道路弄得比我主和他使徒所宣讲的更为狭窄呢?难道现代信徒的道理比《圣经》的道理更为严格么?你只要思考以下几节经文就可以明白了:‘你要尽心、尽性、尽意、尽力、爱主你的上帝。’‘凡人所说的闲话,当审判的日子,必要句句供出来。’‘所以你们或吃或喝,无论作什么,都要为荣耀上帝而行。’”     Said John Wesley, referring to the charges against himself and his associates: "Some allege that the doctrines of these men are false, erroneous, and enthusiastic; that they are new and unheard-of till of late; that they are Quakerism, fanaticism, popery. This whole pretense has been already cut up by the roots, it having been shown at large that every branch of this doctrine is the plain doctrine of Scripture interpreted by our own church. Therefore it cannot be either false or erroneous, provided the Scripture be true." "Others allege, "Their doctrine is too strict; they make the way to heaven too narrow.' And this is in truth the original objection, (as it was almost the only one for some time,) and is secretly at the bottom of a thousand more, which appear in various forms. But do they make the way to heaven any narrower than our Lord and His apostles made it? Is their doctrine stricter than that of the Bible? Consider only a few plain texts: 'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy mind, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength.' 'For every idle word which men shall speak, they shall give an account in the day of judgment.' 'Whether ye eat, or drink, or whatever ye do, do all to the glory of God.' {GC 259.3}
     
49    “如果这一等人所讲的道理比这些话更为严格,他们就该受谴责;但你的良心知道事实并非如此。谁能减去一点一划而不致破坏上帝的话呢?哪一个‘上帝奥秘事的管家’能改变这神圣经典的任何一部分而还可以算为忠心的执事呢?断乎不是,他不能减少什么;也不能减轻什么;他必须向众人宣明,‘我不能降低《圣经》的标准来迎合你的口味。你必须上来迎合《圣经》的标准,否则,你必永远灭亡。’这就是许多人说‘这些人没有人情’的实在原因。他们真是没有人情么?在哪一方面呢?难道他们没有推食食人,解衣衣人么?‘不是的,问题不在这里;他们在这一方面并无缺点。他们乃是在判断人的事上那么没有人情;他们认为除了那些依从他们道路的人之外,没有人能得救。’”(注十五)     "If their doctrine is stricter than this, they are to blame; but you know in your conscience it is not. And who can be one jot less strict without corrupting the word of God? Can any steward of the mysteries of God be found faithful if he change any part of that sacred depositum? No. He can abate nothing, he can soften nothing; he is constrained to declare to all men, 'I may not bring down the Scripture to your taste. You must come up to it, or perish forever.' This is the real ground of that other popular cry concerning 'the uncharitableness of these men.' Uncharitable, are they? In what respect? Do they not feed the hungry and clothe the naked? 'No; that is not the thing: they are not wanting in this: but they are so uncharitable in judging! they think none can be saved but those of their own way.'"--Ibid., vol. 3, pp. 152, 153. {GC 260.1}
     
50    英国在卫斯理时代之前所显示灵性衰落的状况,都是唯信主义者之教训的结果。许多人主张基督已经废弃道德的律法,所以基督徒没有遵守的责任;一个人只要相信,他就可以脱离“好行为的奴役”。其他的人虽然承认律法的永久性,却声称传道人尽可不必劝勉人顺从律法的条例,因为上帝所拣选得救的人,必要“由于上帝恩典无可抵拒的动力,自然就有敬虔和道德的行为,”而那些注定永远灭亡的人,却“没有力量顺从上帝的律法。”     The spiritual declension which had been manifest in England just before the time of Wesley was in great degree the result of antinomian teaching. Many affirmed that Christ had abolished the moral law and that Christians are therefore under no obligation to observe it; that a believer is freed from the "bondage of good works." Others, though admitting the perpetuity of the law, declared that it was unnecessary for ministers to exhort the people to obedience of its precepts, since those whom God had elected to salvation would, "by the irresistible impulse of divine grace, be led to the practice of piety and virtue," while those who were doomed to eternal reprobation "did not have power to obey the divine law." {GC 260.2}
     
51    另有一些人主张“蒙选的人不能从恩典上堕落,也不能失去上帝的恩眷,”于是产生了更可憎的结论:“他们所作的恶事实在不算为罪,也不算为违犯上帝的律法,因此,他们不必承认他们的罪,也不必借着悔改来除掉罪恶。”所以他们声称,如果一个蒙选的人犯了一件最卑劣的罪行,“纵然大家认为他是一件严重违犯上帝律法的罪,但在上帝眼中却不算为罪。”“因为蒙选之人的本质和特性,不可能作出什么上帝不喜悦或所禁止的事。”(注十六)     Others, also holding that "the elect cannot fall from grace nor forfeit the divine favor," arrived at the still more hideous conclusion that "the wicked actions they commit are not really sinful, nor to be considered as instances of their violation of the divine law, and that, consequently, they have no occasion either to confess their sins or to break them off by repentance."--McClintock and Strong, Cyclopedia, art. "Antinomians." Therefore, they declared that even one of the vilest of sins, "considered universally an enormous violation of the divine law, is not a sin in the sight of God," if committed by one of the elect, "because it is one of the essential and distinctive characteristics of the elect, that they cannot do anything that is either displeasing to God or prohibited by the law." {GC 261.1}
     
52    这些怪异的道理与近来一般著名的教育家和神学家的论调本质上是相同的,他们认为上帝没有规定什么不改变的律法为正义的标准,而道德的标准乃是由社会本身来决定,并且是时常改变的。这些思想都是同一个魔王所灌输的──从前他在天上无罪的居民之间已经开始了这种工作,意欲摧毁上帝律法合理的约束。     These monstrous doctrines are essentially the same as the later teaching of popular educators and theologians--that there is no unchangeable divine law as the standard of right, but that the standard of morality is indicated by society itself, and has constantly been subject to change. All these ideas are inspired by the same master spirit--by him who, even among the sinless inhabitants of heaven, began his work of seeking to break down the righteous restraints of the law of God. {GC 261.2}
     
53    这种天命论主张世人的命运是已经注定,非人力所能改变的,因此许多人实际上就拒绝了上帝的律法。卫斯理坚决地反对唯信主义者的错谬,并说明那造成唯信主义的道理乃是与《圣经》相抵触的。“上帝救众人的恩典已经显明出来。”“这是好的,在上帝我们救主面前可蒙悦纳。他愿意万人得救,明白真道。因为只有一位上帝,在上帝和人中间,只有一位中保,乃是降世为人的基督耶稣。他舍自己作万人的赎价。”(多2:11;提前2:3-6)上帝的灵白白地赐下,使每一个人能掌握得救的方法。因此基督──“真光”──“照亮一切生在世上的人。”(约1:9)世人之所以不能得救,乃是因为他们自己故意拒绝生命的恩赐。     The doctrine of the divine decrees, unalterably fixing the character of men, had led many to a virtual rejection of the law of God. Wesley steadfastly opposed the errors of the antinomian teachers and showed that this doctrine which led to antinomianism was contrary to the Scriptures. "The grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men." "This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour; who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; who gave Himself a ransom for all." Titus 2:11; 1 Timothy 2:3-6. The Spirit of God is freely bestowed to enable every man to lay hold upon the means of salvation. Thus Christ, "the true Light," "lighteth every man that cometh into the world." John 1:9. Men fail of salvation through their own willful refusal of the gift of life. {GC 261.3}
     
54    有人说,基督的死已经把十诫的律法和仪文的律法一同废去了,卫斯理回答说:“基督并没有废去那包括在十条诫命之内并为众先知所力行的道德律法。他来的目的并不是要废掉这律法的任何部分。这一个律法是永远不能破坏的。它‘坚立如天上确实的见证。’……自有世界以来,这律法‘不是写在石版上,’乃是在人类从创造主手中出来的时候就已经写在他们的心版上。尽管上帝指头所写的字因罪而大受毁损,但只要我们有辨别善恶的意识,这些字迹总不能完全磨灭。这律法的每一条都必须在全人类身上并且世世代代发生效力;这不在乎时间,空间,或任何其他能改变的条件,却以上帝的本质,人类的性质,和二者之间不变的关系为基础。”     In answer to the claim that at the death of Christ the precepts of the Decalogue had been abolished with the ceremonial law, Wesley said: "The moral law, contained in the Ten Commandments and enforced by the prophets, He did not take away. It was not the design of His coming to revoke any part of this. This is a law which never can be broken, which 'stands fast as the faithful witness in heaven.' . . . This was from the beginning of the world, being 'written not on tables of stone,' but on the hearts of all the children of men, when they came out of the hands of the Creator. And however the letters once wrote by the finger of God are now in a great measure defaced by sin, yet can they not wholly be blotted out, while we have any consciousness of good and evil. Every part of this law must remain in force upon all mankind, and in all ages; as not depending either on time or place, or any other circumstances liable to change, but on the nature of God, and the nature of man, and their unchangeable relation to each other. {GC 262.1}
     
55    “‘我来不是要废掉,乃是要成全’。……毫无疑问的,他这话的意思乃是(前后相符合的。)──我来是要坚立律法,显出它的完美,不管世人为它加上多少虚文,我来是要使其中任何隐秘或含糊的地方完全明朗化;我来是要宣明每一条律法真确和完全的意义;显明每一条诫命的长、阔和整个范围,并显明它的高、深以及其不可思议的纯结和属灵的性质。”(注十七)     "'I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.' . . . Without question, His meaning in this place is (consistently with all that goes before and follows after),--I am come to establish it in its fullness, in spite of all the glosses of men: I am come to place in a full and clear view whatsoever was dark or obscure therein: I am come to declare the true and full import of every part of it; to show the length and breadth, the entire extent, of every commandment contained therein, and the height and depth, the inconceivable purity and spirituality of it in all its branches."--Wesley, sermon 25. {GC 262.2}
     
56    卫斯理声称律法和福音是完全协调的。“所以在律法和福音之间可以看出一种最密切的关系。一方面,律法经常为福音预备条件,向我们指明福音;另一方面,福音经常引领我们更切实地完成律法。比如,律法要我们爱上帝,爱我们的邻舍,并要谦卑,温柔而圣洁。我们觉得自己对于这些美德大有缺乏;是的,‘在人这是不能的;’但我们看明上帝已经应许把这爱赐给我们,使我们可以成为谦卑,温柔,圣洁;于是我们持定这个福音,持定这些大喜的信息;这一切便要按着我们的信心为我们成全了;而且‘律法的义’就借着在基督耶稣里的信心‘成就在我们……身上。’……”     Wesley declared the perfect harmony of the law and the gospel. "There is, therefore, the closest connection that can be conceived, between the law and the gospel. On the one hand, the law continually makes way for, and points us to, the gospel; on the other, the gospel continually leads us to a more exact fulfilling of the law. The law, for instance, requires us to love God, to love our neighbor, to be meek, humble, or holy. We feel that we are not sufficient for these things; yea, that 'with man this is impossible;' but we see a promise of God to give us that love, and to make us humble, meek, and holy: we lay hold of this gospel, of these glad tidings; it is done unto us according to our faith; and 'the righteousness of the law is fulfilled in us,' through faith which is in Christ Jesus. . . . {GC 263.1}
     
57    卫斯理说:“基督福音最大的仇敌,就是那些公然无忌地‘论断律法’和‘批评律法’的人,他们教训人不但要破坏(取消,放松,使之失效)其中的一条,无论是最小的或是最大的,而还要一下子废除全部律法。……随着这个强烈欺骗而来的一切情形中,最令人惊骇的就是那些受其迷惑的人真诚地相信推翻律法倒是荣耀基督,破坏他的教训倒是尊崇他的使命!是的,他们尊荣他,正像犹大从前对他说:‘请拉比安,就与他亲嘴’一样。耶稣也很可以对他们每个人说:‘你用亲嘴的暗号卖人子么?’他们一面谈论他的宝血,一面摘去他的冠冕,并以推进他福音的借口来减轻他律法的要求,这无异是用亲嘴的暗号把他出卖了。人若借宣讲信心而直接或间接地废弃顺从的任何部分,或借宣讲基督而废除或削弱上帝律法最小的一条,他就不能摆脱这个罪名。”(注十八)     "In the highest rank of the enemies of the gospel of Christ," said Wesley, "are they who openly and explicitly 'judge the law' itself, and 'speak evil of the law;' who teach men to break (to dissolve, to loose, to untie the obligation of) not one only, whether of the least or of the greatest, but all the commandments at a stroke. . . . The most surprising of all the circumstances that attend this strong delusion, is that they who are given up to it, really believe that they honor Christ by overthrowing His law, and that they are magnifying His office while they are destroying His doctrine! Yea, they honor Him just as Judas did when he said, 'Hail, Master, and kissed Him.' And He may as justly say to every one of them, 'Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? It is no other than betraying Him with a kiss, to talk of His blood, and take away His crown; to set light by any part of His law, under pretense of advancing His gospel. Nor indeed can anyone escape this charge, who preaches faith in any such a manner as either directly or indirectly tends to set aside any branch of obedience: who preaches Christ so as to disannul, or weaken in any wise, the least of the commandments of God."--Ibid.
     
58    有一人主张,“传扬福音足以达到律法的一切功用。”卫斯理回答说:“这种说法我们绝对否定。传扬福音并不能达到律法的头一个功用,就是使人知罪,唤醒那些在地狱边缘上沉睡的人。”使徒保罗说:“律法本是叫人知罪;”“人必须先知道自己的罪,才能真正感觉到自己需要基督赎罪之血。……我们的救主亲自说过:‘康健的人用不着医生,有病的人才用得着。’所以你若介绍一位医生去为康健的人或至少是自以为康健的人治病,岂非笑话?你必须先使人知道自己有病,不然,你的好意他们是不会感激的。照样,你若介绍基督给那些心安理得,从来没有为罪忧伤的人,岂不也是笑话。”(注十九)     To those who urged that "the preaching of the gospel answers all the ends of the law," Wesley replied: "This we utterly deny. It does not answer the very first end of the law, namely, the convincing men of sin, the awakening those who are still asleep on the brink of hell." The apostle Paul declares that "by the law is the knowledge of sin;" "and not until man is convicted of sin, will he truly feel his need of the atoning blood of Christ. . . . 'They that be whole,' as our Lord Himself observes, 'need not a physician, but they that are sick.' It is absurd, therefore, to offer a physician to them that are whole, or that at least imagine themselves so to be. You are first to convince them that they are sick; otherwise they will not thank you for your labor. It is equally absurd to offer Christ to them whose heart is whole, having never yet been broken."--Ibid., sermon 35. {GC 264.1}
     
59    这样,卫斯理宣讲上帝恩惠的福音时,也像他的主一样,设法“使律法为大,为尊。”他忠心地完成了上帝所交付给他的工作,同时,上帝所让他看到的结果是光荣的。当他漫长的八十余年──游行布道的时间达半个世纪以上的一生结束的时候,他的门人竟有五十余万之多。至于那些借着他的工作而从罪恶的败亡和堕落之中被提拔起来过一种更高尚更纯洁之生活的人,以及那些因了他的训教而得到更深刻更丰富之经验的人,其数目的多少非到得赎之人完全聚集到上帝国的时候,是无法知道的。他的人生给予每个基督徒一个极宝贵的教训。惟愿基督这个仆人的信心,谦卑,不倦的热诚,自我牺牲和虔诚,能在今日的教会中反映出来!     Thus while preaching the gospel of the grace of God, Wesley, like his Master, sought to "magnify the law, and make it honorable." Faithfully did he accomplish the work given him of God, and glorious were the results which he was permitted to behold. At the close of his long life of more than fourscore years--above half a century spent in itinerant ministry--his avowed adherents numbered more than half a million souls. But the multitude that through his labors had been lifted from the ruin and degradation of sin to a higher and a purer life, and the number who by his teaching had attained to a deeper and richer experience, will never be known till the whole family of the redeemed shall be gathered into the kingdom of God. His life presents a lesson of priceless worth to every Christian. Would that the faith and humility, the untiring zeal, self-sacrifice, and devotion of this servant of Christ might be reflected in the churches of today! {GC 264.2}
收藏 推荐 打印 | 录入:迎风草 | 阅读:
相关新闻       怀著研究 
本文评论   查看全部评论 (3)
表情: 表情 姓名: 字数
点评:
       
评论声明
  • 尊重网上道德,遵守中华人民共和国的各项有关法律法规
  • 承担一切因您的行为而直接或间接导致的民事或刑事法律责任
  • 本站管理人员有权保留或删除其管辖留言中的任意内容
  • 本站有权在网站内转载或引用您的评论
  • 参与本评论即表明您已经阅读并接受上述条款
第 3 楼
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
回复 过路人会员 的评论
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037
第 2 楼
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
第 1 楼
* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
最新添加
随机新闻
热门评论
* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037