你好,游客 登录 注册 搜索
背景:
阅读新闻

善恶之争

第五章 宗教改革的晨星

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录

 

宗教改革的晨星     John Wycliffe
     
01  在宗教改革成功之前,所有的《圣经》册数极少;然而上帝并没有让人将他的话完全毁灭。其中的真理也不能永远埋没。上帝从前为了解救他的仆人,怎样打开监狱的铁门,他也能很容易地将那束缚生命之道的锁链解开。在欧洲各国都有人受上帝圣灵的感动去寻求真理,如同寻找埋藏的财宝。上帝先引导他们注意《圣经》,于是他们便以热烈的心情研究其中的圣言。他们愿意付出任何代价来接受真光。他们虽然未能洞悉其中一切的教训,但有许多已埋没多年的真理却被他们发现了。于是他们以天国使者的身份出去挣断谬论和迷信的锁链,并号召那些久受奴役的人起来争取自由。     Before the Reformation there were at times but very few copies of the Bible in existence, but God had not suffered His word to be wholly destroyed. Its truths were not to be forever hidden. He could as easily unchain the words of life as He could open prison doors and unbolt iron gates to set His servants free. In the different countries of Europe men were moved by the Spirit of God to search for the truth as for hid treasures. Providentially guided to the Holy Scriptures, they studied the sacred pages with intense interest. They were willing to accept the light at any cost to themselves. Though they did not see all things clearly, they were enabled to perceive many long-buried truths. As Heaven-sent messengers they went forth, rending asunder the chains of error and superstition, and calling upon those who had been so long enslaved, to arise and assert their liberty. {GC 79.1}
     
02  这时,除了瓦典西人已将《圣经》译成自己的方言之外,上帝的话在其他地区仍被埋没在古文之中,只有受过高深教育的人才能明白这些文字;可是时候已到,必须把《圣经》翻译出来,使各地人民都能有自己方言的《圣经》。因为世界的午夜已过;黑暗的时辰渐渐消逝,各地已有清晨的曙光出现了。     Except among the Waldenses, the word of God had for ages been locked up in languages known only to the learned; but the time had come for the Scriptures to be translated and given to the people of different lands in their native tongue. The world had passed its midnight. The hours of darkness were wearing away, and in many lands appeared tokens of the coming dawn.
     
03  在第十四世纪有所谓“宗教改革的晨星”在英国出现。威克里夫约翰乃是宗教改革运动的先锋,不单是为英国,而也是为整个基督教界的。他向罗马教廷所提出的严重抗议将要响彻到世世代代。那一次的抗议乃是长期抗战的开始,其结果使许多人,许多教会,和许多国家都得到解脱。     In the fourteenth century arose in England the "morning star of the Reformation." John Wycliffe was the herald of reform, not for England alone, but for all Christendom. The great protest against Rome which it was permitted him to utter was never to be silenced. That protest opened the struggle which was to result in the emancipation of individuals, of churches, and of nations. {GC 80.1}
     
04  威克里夫曾受过高深的教育,但在他看来,敬畏耶和华是智慧的开端。他在大学里度着极虔诚的生活,并以才高识广闻名。他渴慕一切的知识,所以努力攻修各科的学术。他精通哲学,教会的规条和国家的律法,尤其是他本国的律法。这早年的教育在他日后的工作上显然有了相当的贡献。他既熟悉当时空洞的哲学,就能暴露其中的虚伪;他对国家和教会的法令既有研究,就为争取政治和宗教自由的战争有了准备。他一方面能运用《圣经》的武器,同时也受了学校的训练,并熟悉一般学者所用的策略。他卓越的天才和渊博的学问使敌人和友人都尊敬他。他的门人见他站在国家学者的前列,也引以为慰;他的敌人也未能轻视宗教改革运动,说它的首脑人物是软弱无知的。     Wycliffe received a liberal education, and with him the fear of the Lord was the beginning of wisdom. He was noted at college for his fervent piety as well as for his remarkable talents and sound scholarship. In his thirst for knowledge he sought to become acquainted with every branch of learning. He was educated in the scholastic philosophy, in the canons of the church, and in the civil law, especially that of his own country. In his after labors the value of this early training was apparent. A thorough acquaintance with the speculative philosophy of his time enabled him to expose its errors; and by his study of national and ecclesiastical law he was prepared to engage in the great struggle for civil and religious liberty. While he could wield the weapons drawn from the word of God, he had acquired the intellectual discipline of the schools, and he understood the tactics of the schoolmen. The power of his genius and the extent and thoroughness of his knowledge commanded the respect of both friends and foes. His adherents saw with satisfaction that their champion stood foremost among the leading minds of the nation; and his enemies were prevented from casting contempt upon the cause of reform by exposing the ignorance or weakness of its supporter. {GC 80.2}
     
05  威克里夫在大学读书时已开始研究《圣经》了。在那时期,只有古文的《圣经》,所以惟有学者才能找到这真理的源头,至于一般未受教育的人却无从寻找。威克里夫日后进行宗教改革的工作,在此时已经有了准备。在他以前已经有不少的学者研究过《圣经》,并找到其中所启示有关上帝白白赐下救恩的伟大真理。他们在教学的时候也曾将这真理的知识传开,并引领别人去研究这活泼的圣言。     While Wycliffe was still at college, he entered upon the study of the Scriptures. In those early times, when the Bible existed only in the ancient languages, scholars were enabled to find their way to the fountain of truth, which was closed to the uneducated classes. Thus already the way had been prepared for Wycliffe's future work as a Reformer. Men of learning had studied the word of God and had found the great truth of His free grace there revealed. In their teachings they had spread a knowledge of this truth, and had led others to turn to the living oracles. {GC 80.3}
     
06  威克里夫一注意到《圣经》,便认真下手研究;他过去怎样透彻地钻研其他学科,现在也照样地去研究《圣经》。以前他曾感觉到自己有一种大需要,是他的学问和教会的教义所不能满足的。如今在《圣经》里他找到了过去所无法找到的真理。在《圣经》中,他看明上帝所启示的救恩计划,并看明基督为人类的中保。于是他献身为基督服务,决心要宣传他所发现的真理。     When Wycliffe's attention was directed to the Scriptures, he entered upon their investigation with the same thoroughness which had enabled him to master the learning of the schools. Heretofore he had felt a great want, which neither his scholastic studies nor the teaching of the church could satisfy. In the word of God he found that which he had before sought in vain. Here he saw the plan of salvation revealed and Christ set forth as the only advocate for man. He gave himself to the service of Christ and determined to proclaim the truths he had discovered. {GC 81.1}
     
07  在工作开始的时候,威克里夫并没有预料这工作将要发展到什么地步;象后起的改革家一样,威克里夫原来无意与罗马教廷对立。可是一个效忠真理的人,至终不得不与谬论发生冲突。他既看出罗马教的错谬,就更热切地传讲《圣经》的教训。他既看出罗马教廷已经离弃了上帝的真道,去随从人的遗传;他就毫无忌惮地控告神父们,说他们已将《圣经》置之度外了;他非要他们把《圣经》交还给广大人民,并在教会中恢复《圣经》的权威不可。威克里夫是一个精明强干的教师,也是一个富有口才的传道人。他在日常生活上实践他所传讲的真理。他那对于《圣经》的知识,辩证的能力,和生活的纯正,以及他那不屈不挠的勇敢和正气,博得一般人的尊敬和信任。多数的民众既看到罗马教中所普遍存在着的罪恶,就感觉不满,并公然地欢迎威克里夫所阐明的真理;可是罗马教的领袖们看到这一个改革家发挥比他们更大的影响力,就极其恼恨。     Like after Reformers, Wycliffe did not, at the opening of his work, foresee whither it would lead him. He did not set himself deliberately in opposition to Rome. But devotion to truth could not but bring him in conflict with falsehood. The more clearly he discerned the errors of the papacy, the more earnestly he presented the teaching of the Bible. He saw that Rome had forsaken the word of God for human tradition; he fearlessly accused the priesthood of having banished the Scriptures, and demanded that the Bible be restored to the people and that its authority be again established in the church. He was an able and earnest teacher and an eloquent preacher, and his daily life was a demonstration of the truths he preached. His knowledge of the Scriptures, the force of his reasoning, the purity of his life, and his unbending courage and integrity won for him general esteem and confidence. Many of the people had become dissatisfied with their former faith as they saw the iniquity that prevailed in the Roman Church, and they hailed with unconcealed joy the truths brought to view by Wycliffe; but the papal leaders were filled with rage when they perceived that this Reformer was gaining an influence greater than their own.
     
08  威克里夫善于辨别错谬的道理,并大胆抨击罗马教廷所赞许的许多恶习。他曾一度被聘为英国国王的牧师,他就勇敢地反对教皇命令英国国王纳贡的事,并说教皇如此作威作福,干涉国家的君王,根本是悖乎情理,更不合乎启示的。这时教皇所索取的贡物已经引起普遍的反感,所以威克里夫的言论在英国一般领袖人物的思想中起了很大的作用。于是英国国王和贵族联合起来否定教皇自取的政治权威,抗拒纳贡。这样,教皇原来在英国所享有的至上权威便受了一次严重的打击     Wycliffe was a keen detector of error, and he struck fearlessly against many of the abuses sanctioned by the authority of Rome. While acting as chaplain for the king, he took a bold stand against the payment of tribute claimed by the pope from the English monarch and showed that the papal assumption of authority over secular rulers was contrary to both reason and revelation. The demands of the pope had excited great indignation, and Wycliffe's teachings exerted an influence upon the leading minds of the nation. The king and the nobles united in denying the pontiff's claim to temporal authority and in refusing the payment of the tribute. Thus an effectual blow was struck against the papal supremacy in England. {GC 82.1}
     
09  改革家进行持久而坚决作战的另一个对象,乃是当时的“托钵僧”制度。这些罗马教的僧侣们已遍及英国,到处皆是;他们成了国家的大害使国家无法富强起来。工业,教育,和社会风气都受到这制度的恶劣影响。僧侣们闲游乞食的生活非但大大地损耗人民的资财,而也使人轻看劳动。一般青年人因之而腐化败坏了。僧侣们常劝青年人进入修道院,终身修行;他们非但没有得到父母的同意,甚至还不让父母知道,或是背着父母的命令。罗马教的一位神父强调修行高过孝敬父母的义务,说:“即或你的父亲躺在门前痛哭流涕;抑或你的母亲把生养你的身体和乳养你的胸怀给你看,你务要将他们一并践踏脚下,勇往直前,到基督那里去!”借着路得马丁所痛斥为这种“狼心狗肺一般,决非基督徒和人道所能容忍的残暴,”罗马教的僧侣们使儿女的心硬如铁石,违背父母。罗马教的领袖们用这种方法使上帝的诫命因他们的遗传而失效,正象古时的法利赛人一样。许多家庭因而离散,许多父母失去了儿女的敬爱。     Another evil against which the Reformer waged long and resolute battle was the institution of the orders of mendicant friars. These friars swarmed in England, casting a blight upon the greatness and prosperity of the nation. Industry, education, morals, all felt the withering influence. The monk's life of idleness and beggary was not only a heavy drain upon the resources of the people, but it brought useful labor into contempt. The youth were demoralized and corrupted. By the influence of the friars many were induced to enter a cloister and devote themselves to a monastic life, and this not only without the consent of their parents, but even without their knowledge and contrary to their commands. One of the early Fathers of the Roman Church, urging the claims of monasticism above the obligations of filial love and duty, had declared: "Though thy father should lie before thy door weeping and lamenting, and thy mother should show the body that bore thee and the breasts that nursed thee, see that thou trample them underfoot, and go onward straightway to Christ." By this "monstrous inhumanity," as Luther afterward styled it, "savoring more of the wolf and the tyrant than of the Christian and the man," were the hearts of children steeled against their parents.--Barnas Sears, The Life of Luther, pages 70, 69. Thus did the papal leaders, like the Pharisees of old, make the commandment of God of none effect by their tradition. Thus homes were made desolate and parents were deprived of the society of their sons and daughters. {GC 82.2}
     
10  连许多大学生也都受到僧侣们的欺骗去加入他们的组织。后来其中有许多人看出这样行乃是断送了自己的人生,并使父母备尝忧患,就懊悔莫及;可是既入罗网,就无法挣脱了。许多父母为预防僧侣们的影响,就不肯将自己的儿女送到大学里去。因此,各大学学生的数目显著地下降。于是教育不振,文化普遍地低落了。     Even the students in the universities were deceived by the false representations of the monks and induced to join their orders. Many afterward repented this step, seeing that they had blighted their own lives and had brought sorrow upon their parents; but once fast in the snare it was impossible for them to obtain their freedom. Many parents, fearing the influence of the monks, refused to send their sons to the universities. There was a marked falling off in the number of students in attendance at the great centers of learning. The schools languished, and ignorance prevailed. {GC 83.1}
     
11  教皇曾授权给僧侣们去听人认罪,并赦免罪恶。从此弊端百出;僧侣们只图增加自己的收入,所以一贯将赦罪之恩作为商品出卖,于是各种各类的罪犯皆来光顾,结果社会上罪恶猖獗,无法无天。贫穷和患病的人无人照顾,而那应该用来解救他们痛苦的捐献,却都送给那些用威胁手段向人民勒索钱财的僧侣们了;凡不慷慨捐输的人,就被他们痛斥为不敬虔分子。僧侣们虽然外表装出贫穷的样子,事实上他们的财富与日俱增,而且他们所住壮丽的修道院,和所吃的山珍海味,与国家日益贫困的经济显然是有别了。僧侣们每日度着奢侈宴乐的生活,同时派出无知的小人到民间去替他们作工;这些人只会讲一些荒唐的神话和诙谐的故事来愚弄人民,使他们更加完全成为僧侣们的奴才。僧侣们就这样将广大人民蒙蔽在迷信之中,叫他们相信一切的宗教义务全在承认教皇为至上权威,敬拜古代圣徒,并馈赠礼物给僧侣们;人只要照此殷勤去作,就可以保证在天上有他的地位了。     The pope had bestowed on these monks the power to hear confessions and to grant pardon. This became a source of great evil. Bent on enhancing their gains, the friars were so ready to grant absolution that criminals of all descriptions resorted to them, and, as a result, the worst vices rapidly increased. The sick and the poor were left to suffer, while the gifts that should have relieved their wants went to the monks, who with threats demanded the alms of the people, denouncing the impiety of those who should withhold gifts from their orders. Notwithstanding their profession of poverty, the wealth of the friars was constantly increasing, and their magnificent edifices and luxurious tables made more apparent the growing poverty of the nation. And while spending their time in luxury and pleasure, they sent out in their stead ignorant men, who could only recount marvelous tales, legends, and jests to amuse the people and make them still more completely the dupes of the monks. Yet the friars continued to maintain their hold on the superstitious multitudes and led them to believe that all religious duty was comprised in acknowledging the supremacy of the pope, adoring the saints, and making gifts to the monks, and that this was sufficient to secure them a place in heaven.
     
12  许多敬虔的学者曾设法改良这种修道院的制度,但始终是劳而无功,束手无策;威克里夫却有更清楚的眼光,便下手要将这罪恶的制度连根拔起。他声称,修道院制度本身就是错误的,必须废止。于是众人渐渐开始议论并询问起来了。当僧侣们走遍全国出售教皇的赦罪券时,许多人就开始怀疑,罪的赦免究竟能否用金钱购买?众人也提出疑问说,与其向罗马的教皇求赦,还不如向上帝求赦呢。(见附录一)也有不少人看到贪得无餍的僧侣们肆无忌惮地勒索财物,就大大不安。他们说,“这些罗马教廷的僧侣和神父们成了我们国家的疮痍,吸尽民脂民膏。惟愿上帝救我们脱离这些人,若不然,全国人民只有死路一条了。”(注一)僧侣们为掩饰自己的贪心,声称自己是在跟随救主的榜样;他们说,耶稣和他的门徒曾依赖百姓所赠送的财物养生。这种说法结果对僧侣们自己反倒不利,因为许多人听了这话之后,为要明白问题的究竟,就自己去查考《圣经》,其结果乃是罗马教廷所最不欢迎的。许多人的思想转向真理的源头去了,而这真理的源头正是罗马教廷所要埋没的。     Men of learning and piety had labored in vain to bring about a reform in these monastic orders; but Wycliffe, with clearer insight, struck at the root of the evil, declaring that the system itself was false and that it should be abolished. Discussion and inquiry were awakening. As the monks traversed the country, vending the pope's pardons, many were led to doubt the possibility of purchasing forgiveness with money, and they questioned whether they should not seek pardon from God rather than from the pontiff of Rome. (See Appendix note for page 59.) Not a few were alarmed at the rapacity of the friars, whose greed seemed never to be satisfied. "The monks and priests of Rome," said they, "are eating us away like a cancer. God must deliver us, or the people will perish."--D'Aubigne, b. 17, ch. 7. To cover their avarice, these begging monks claimed that they were following the Saviour's example, declaring that Jesus and His disciples had been supported by the charities of the people. This claim resulted in injury to their cause, for it led many to the Bible to learn the truth for themselves--a result which of all others was least desired by Rome. The minds of men were directed to the Source of truth, which it was her object to conceal. {GC 84.1}
     
13  这时威克里夫开始写作一些反对僧侣制度的传单。他主要的目的还不是想和他们进行争辩,乃是要使众人注意到《圣经》和启示《圣经》的上帝。他声称,教皇所有赦罪或开除教籍的权柄并不比普通的神父大,而且除非一个人先招致上帝的定罪,则开除教籍之举是不能成立的。威克里夫用这种最有效的方法,去推翻教皇所筑成那属灵和属世的庞大组织;在这种组织里有千万人的身体和心灵受到捆绑。     Wycliffe began to write and publish tracts against the friars, not, however, seeking so much to enter into dispute with them as to call the minds of the people to the teachings of the Bible and its Author. He declared that the power of pardon or of excommunication is possessed by the pope in no greater degree than by common priests, and that no man can be truly excommunicated unless he has first brought upon himself the condemnation of God. In no more effectual way could he have undertaken the overthrow of that mammoth fabric of spiritual and temporal dominion which the pope had erected and in which the souls and bodies of millions were held captive. {GC 84.2}
     
14  后来威克里夫又有一次机会代表英国政府,去抗拒罗马教廷的侵略政策。他受任为英国大使,在荷兰与教皇的使节会商凡两年之久。他在那里接触了从法国,意大利,和西班牙来的宗教人士,得有机会观察到罗马教廷的内幕,并看到许多在英国所看不到的事。他所经历的,对他晚年的工作有很大的帮助。他在这些教廷的代表身上,看出罗马教的真相和行动的方针。他回国后,便更公开而热切地重述他往年所传的教训,说明罗马教廷所拜的偶像,不外乎是贪婪,骄傲和欺诈。     Again Wycliffe was called to defend the rights of the English crown against the encroachments of Rome; and being appointed a royal ambassador, he spent two years in the Netherlands, in conference with the commissioners of the pope. Here he was brought into communication with ecclesiastics from France, Italy, and Spain, and he had an opportunity to look behind the scenes and gain a knowledge of many things which would have remained hidden from him in England. He learned much that was to give point to his after labors. In these representatives from the papal court he read the true character and aims of the hierarchy. He returned to England to repeat his former teachings more openly and with greater zeal, declaring that covetousness, pride, and deception were the gods of Rome. {GC 84.3}
     
15  他在他的一张传单上指控教皇和教皇的征收员说,“他们每年将穷人养生的金钱和国库中成千的马克(当时的货币),去用来维持他们的宗教礼节和所谓属灵的活动,这一切无非是一种可咒诅的买卖,他们还想全世界都同意他们这样呢。即使我国境内有一座黄金堆成的高山,而除了这骄傲世俗化神父的征收员之外,并没有别人来挖取,我敢说在相当时期内,这座山也必要给他挖空了;他不住地把我国的财富往外运送,而所给我们的无非是上帝因这种买卖而降的咒诅。”(注二)     In one of his tracts he said, speaking of the pope and his collectors: "They draw out of our land poor men's livelihood, and many thousand marks, by the year, of the king's money, for sacraments and spiritual things, that is cursed heresy of simony, and maketh all Christendom assent and maintain this heresy. And certes though our realm had a huge hill of gold, and never other man took thereof but only this proud worldly priest's collector, by process of time this hill must be spended; for he taketh ever money out of our land, and sendeth nought again but God's curse for his simony." --John Lewis, History of the Life and Sufferings of J. Wiclif, page 37. {GC 85.1}
     
16  威克里夫回国之后,英国国王派他在洛特勿教区传道。这事至少能说明国王并没有反对他直爽的言论。威克里夫非但能影响到全国人民的信仰,而也曾影响到朝廷的行动。     Soon after his return to England, Wycliffe received from the king the appointment to the rectory of Lutterworth. This was an assurance that the monarch at least had not been displeased by his plain speaking. Wycliffe's influence was felt in shaping the action of the court, as well as in molding the belief of the nation. {GC 85.2}
     
17  过了不久,教皇便向威克里夫大发雷霆了。有三道旨令送到英国──一道给他所属的大学,一道给国王,一道给英国的主教──每一道旨令都吩咐他们采取有效的措施来堵住这宣讲异端之教师的口。(见附录二)在旨令未到达之前,罗马教在英国的主教们曾经一度把威克里夫传去受审。但当时有两位国内最有势力的王侯陪他到公庭上去;同时有许多民众将法庭包围,并冲进里面,以致审问威克里夫的人甚是恐慌,当即宣布延期开庭,威克里夫就平安地回去了。当时年纪老迈的国王爱德华第三常受主教们的怂恿,要他加害于威克里夫,但过不久这位国王死了,继位的乃是一位先前拥护过威克里夫的人。     The papal thunders were soon hurled against him. Three bulls were dispatched to England,--to the university, to the king, and to the prelates,--all commanding immediate and decisive measures to silence the teacher of heresy. (Augustus Neander, General History of the Christian Religion and Church, period 6, sec. 2, pt. 1, par. 8. See also Appendix.) Before the arrival of the bulls, however, the bishops, in their zeal, had summoned Wycliffe before them for trial. But two of the most powerful princes in the kingdom accompanied him to the tribunal; and the people, surrounding the building and rushing in, so intimidated the judges that the proceedings were for the time suspended, and he was allowed to go his way in peace. A little later, Edward III, whom in his old age the prelates were seeking to influence against the Reformer, died, and Wycliffe's former protector became regent of the kingdom. {GC 85.3}
     
18  及至教皇的指令传来,全国因教廷的威风而不敢不服,认为必须将威克里夫逮捕监禁起来。再进一步就必走向火刑柱了。根据当时的形势看来,威克里夫是注定要受罗马教廷严重回击的。可是古时向人说“不要惧怕,我是你的盾牌”(创15:1)的上帝,这时再度伸手保护了他的仆人。死亡没有临到威克里夫,反而临到那下令要消灭他的教皇。贵钩利十一世死了,于是那些聚集预备审判威克里夫的主教们也解散了。     But the arrival of the papal bulls laid upon all England a peremptory command for the arrest and imprisonment of the heretic. These measures pointed directly to the stake. It appeared certain that Wycliffe must soon fall a prey to the vengeance of Rome. But He who declared to one of old, "Fear not: . . . I am thy shield" (Genesis 15:1), again stretched out His hand to protect His servant. Death came, not to the Reformer, but to the pontiff who had decreed his destruction. Gregory XI died, and the ecclesiastics who had assembled for Wycliffe's trial, dispersed. {GC 86.1}
     
19  上帝的智慧更进一步地为宗教改革运动预备了道路。教皇贵钩利死后,接着就有两个教皇出来争夺教权。于是有两个相敌对的势力,各说自己是绝无错误的,各说自己是众人所必须跟从的。(见附录三)他们各自号召忠实的信徒来帮助他攻击对方,并用最可怕的咒诅互相威胁,用天国的赏赐奖励自己的仆从。这一件事大大地减弱了罗马教的声势。两个敌对派在互相攻击之后,已经自顾不暇,于是威克里夫得到了一时的平安。两个教皇之间常有咒诅和指责的命令相继颁布,而且他们的纠纷竟酿成许多血腥的凶杀案件。教会内部乌烟瘴气,罪恶滔天。这时,改革家威克里夫则在自己洛特勿教区幽静之所殷勤地劝人不再信靠那两个自相纷争的教皇,而应当仰望和平之君耶稣。     God's providence still further overruled events to give opportunity for the growth of the Reformation. The death of Gregory was followed by the election of two rival popes. Two conflicting powers, each professedly infallible, now claimed obedience. (See Appendix notes for pages 50 and 86.) Each called upon the faithful to assist him in making war upon the other, enforcing his demands by terrible anathemas against his adversaries, and promises of rewards in heaven to his supporters. This occurrence greatly weakened the power of the papacy. The rival factions had all they could do to attack each other, and Wycliffe for a time had rest. Anathemas and recriminations were flying from pope to pope, and torrents of blood were poured out to support their conflicting claims. Crimes and scandals flooded the church. Meanwhile the Reformer, in the quiet retirement of his parish of Lutterworth, was laboring diligently to point men from the contending popes to Jesus, the Prince of Peace. {GC 86.2}
     
20  这一次的分裂以及所产生勾心斗角,黑暗腐败的事,使众人看出罗马教的真相,借此为宗教改革铺平了道路。威克里夫写了一个传单,题目是:“两个教皇的分裂”。他叫众人考虑一下,这两个教皇互相控告为敌基督者,二人所讲的可能都是确实的。他说,“上帝现在不再容许恶魔附在一个教皇身上,所以把他分成两个,叫人奉基督的名可以更容易地胜过他们。”(注三)     The schism, with all the strife and corruption which it caused, prepared the way for the Reformation by enabling the people to see what the papacy really was. In a tract which he published, On the Schism of the Popes, Wycliffe called upon the people to consider whether these two priests were not speaking the truth in condemning each other as the anti-christ. "God," said he, "would no longer suffer the fiend to reign in only one such priest, but . . . made division among two, so that men, in Christ's name, may the more easily overcome them both."--R. Vaughan, Life and Opinions of John de Wycliffe, vol. 2, p. 6. {GC 86.3}
     
21  威克里夫效法他的主耶稣,将福音传给贫穷的人。他在洛特勿教区的穷人家中将真光传开,而还不以此自满,却决心将这光传到英国的每一角落。为达到这目的起见,他组织了一班传道人。他们是淳朴,虔诚,热爱真理者,他们喜爱将真理传开,过于喜爱一切。他们走遍全国,在各市场,大都市的街道上和农村中教训人。他们找到年老的,患病的,贫穷的,将上帝恩惠的喜信讲给他们听。     Wycliffe, like his Master, preached the gospel to the poor. Not content with spreading the light in their humble homes in his own parish of Lutterworth, he determined that it should be carried to every part of England. To accomplish this he organized a body of preachers, simple, devout men, who loved the truth and desired nothing so much as to extend it. These men went everywhere, teaching in the market places, in the streets of the great cities, and in the country lanes. They sought out the aged, the sick, and the poor, and opened to them the glad tidings of the grace of God. {GC 87.1}
     
22  威克里夫曾任牛津大学神学教授,常在大学的礼堂中讲道。他忠心地将真理传讲给他门下的学生,以致他们称他为“福音博士。”然而他一生最大的工作,乃是将《圣经》译成英文。在《圣经的真理及其意义》的一篇文章中,他表示自己译经的决心,为要使英国的每一个人都能用自己的语文,读到上帝奇妙的作为。     As a professor of theology at Oxford, Wycliffe preached the word of God in the halls of the university. So faithfully did he present the truth to the students under his instruction, that he received the title of "the gospel doctor." But the greatest work of his life was to be the translation of the Scriptures into the English language. In a work, On the Truth and Meaning of Scripture, he expressed his intention to translate the Bible, so that every man in England might read, in the language in which he was born, the wonderful works of God. {GC 87.2}
     
23  可是威克里夫的工作突然中止了。他虽然还不满六十岁,但因不住地工作,研究,又加上敌人的攻击,终致精疲力尽,积劳成疾。他的病状极为严重,僧侣们闻之大为庆幸。他们想他现在一定会为他过去危害教会的行为懊悔了,于是赶到他的病房去听他悔罪。四个僧侣教团各派代表一人,会同四位政府官员来到威克里夫的榻前,以为他快要断气了。他们对他说:“死亡快要临到你了,务要觉悟自己的错误,并当着我们,将你破坏我们的言论全部收回。”这位改革家静听他们说话之后,便请侍候他的人扶他起坐,随后定睛望着那些等待他反悔的人,用常使他们战栗的那坚稳而有力的声音向他们说:“我是不会死的,却要活下去,再控诉僧侣们的罪恶。”(注四)僧侣们惊异羞愧地狼狈而去。     But suddenly his labors were stopped. Though not yet sixty years of age, unceasing toil, study, and the assaults of his enemies had told upon his strength and made him prematurely old. He was attacked by a dangerous illness. The tidings brought great joy to the friars. Now they thought he would bitterly repent the evil he had done the church, and they hurried to his chamber to listen to his confession. Representatives from the four religious orders, with four civil officers, gathered about the supposed dying man. "You have death on your lips," they said; "be touched by your faults, and retract in our presence all that you have said to our injury." The Reformer listened in silence; then he bade his attendant raise him in his bed, and, gazing steadily upon them as they stood waiting for his recantation, he said, in the firm, strong voice which had so often caused them to tremble: "I shall not die, but live; and again declare the evil deeds of the friars."--D'Aubigne, b. 17, ch. 7. Astonished and abashed, the monks hurried from the room. {GC 87.3}
     
24  威克里夫的话果然实现了,他从病榻起来之后,终于将最有利于反抗罗马教廷的武器交在他的同胞手里,──把《圣经》交给他们,这经就是上帝命定为解救世人,光照世人,并将福音传给他们的媒介。为完成这一工作起见,威克里夫必须先克服许多极大的障碍。那时他年老多病,知道自己至多只有几年的工作时间了;他看出他所必遭的反对;但他想起上帝的应许,就刚强壮胆无所畏惧地向前迈进。好在他的智力强健,经验丰富;上帝过去保护并锻炼他,也正是为这一项重大的工作。于是正当举世骚乱不安之际,威克里夫在洛特勿教区却不顾外面所起的风云,专心致力于他所拣选的工作。     Wycliffe's words were fulfilled. He lived to place in the hands of his countrymen the most powerful of all weapons against Rome--to give them the Bible, the Heaven-appointed agent to liberate, enlighten, and evangelize the people. There were many and great obstacles to surmount in the accomplishment of this work. Wycliffe was weighed down with infirmities; he knew that only a few years for labor remained for him; he saw the opposition which he must meet; but, encouraged by the promises of God's word, he went forward nothing daunted. In the full vigor of his intellectual powers, rich in experience, he had been preserved and prepared by God's special providence for this, the greatest of his labors. While all Christendom was filled with tumult, the Reformer in his rectory at Lutterworth, unheeding the storm that raged without, applied himself to his chosen task. {GC 88.1}
     
25  最后大功告成,──第一本英文《圣经》译本问世了。上帝的圣言终于向英国展开。这时不管是监狱,或者是火刑,这位改革家都无所惧怕了。因为他已将永不熄灭的火光交给英国人民,借此他已打断迷信与罪恶的捆锁,解救并提高他本国的声望。在这一点上,他所成就的比任何战场上的胜利还多。     At last the work was completed--the first English translation of the Bible ever made. The word of God was opened to England. The Reformer feared not now the prison or the stake. He had placed in the hands of the English people a light which should never be extinguished. In giving the Bible to his countrymen, he had done more to break the fetters of ignorance and vice, more to liberate and elevate his country, than was ever achieved by the most brilliant victories on fields of battle. {GC 88.2}
     
26  那时印刷术尚未发明,所以要发行《圣经》,必须用手抄的方法慢慢缮写。那时众人对《圣经》极其羡慕,虽然有很多的人自愿从事抄写,但仍供不应求。那些富有经济能力的人都想购买全部《圣经》。其他的人只买得一部分。往往有几家人联合定购一本。这样,威克里夫的《圣经》很快地在民间找到销路了。     The art of printing being still unknown, it was only by slow and wearisome labor that copies of the Bible could be multiplied. So great was the interest to obtain the book, that many willingly engaged in the work of transcribing it, but it was with difficulty that the copyists could supply the demand. Some of the more wealthy purchasers desired the whole Bible. Others bought only a portion. In many cases, several families united to purchase a copy. Thus Wycliffe's Bible soon found its way to the homes of the people. {GC 88.3}
     
27  威克里夫既凭公理讲话,众人就对自己服从教皇的教条,觉悟其非了。他宣讲了改正教教义的特点,就是因信基督而得救,和惟有《圣经》是绝无错误的真理权威。他所派出去的传道人将圣经和他的作品普及各处,以致接受这新信仰的人几达英国人数的一半。     The appeal to men's reason aroused them from their passive submission to papal dogmas. Wycliffe now taught the distinctive doctrines of Protestantism--salvation through faith in Christ, and the sole infallibility of the Scriptures. The preachers whom he had sent out circulated the Bible, together with the Reformer's writings, and with such success that the new faith was accepted by nearly one half of the people of England. {GC 89.1}
     
28  《圣经》的出现使教会当局大费周章。这样一来,他们所必须对付的力量比对付威克里夫个人大得多了,──这个力量是他们的武器所无法抵抗的。这时英国还没有律法禁止《圣经》,因为这时《圣经》还没有译成民间通行的方言。后来禁止《圣经》的律法终于制定并严厉地执行了。但在未颁布之前,神父们虽然设法反对,发行《圣经》的机会还是存在的。     The appearance of the Scriptures brought dismay to the authorities of the church. They had now to meet an agency more powerful than Wycliffe--an agency against which their weapons would avail little. There was at this time no law in England prohibiting the Bible, for it had never before been published in the language of the people. Such laws were afterward enacted and rigorously enforced. Meanwhile, notwithstanding the efforts of the priests, there was for a season opportunity for the circulation of the word of God. {GC 89.2}
     
29  过不久,罗马教的首领们又设法要堵塞威克里夫的口,他先后受审三次,但每次敌人都不得逞。首先罗马教的僧正会宣布威克里夫的作品是叛教的文字,随后僧正们赢得当时年轻的国王里查第二的赞同,使他颁布御旨,监禁一切信从威克里夫教义的人。     Again the papal leaders plotted to silence the Reformer's voice. Before three tribunals he was successively summoned for trial, but without avail. First a synod of bishops declared his writings heretical, and, winning the young king, Richard II, to their side, they obtained a royal decree consigning to prison all who should hold the condemned doctrines. {GC 89.3}
     
30  威克里夫立即上诉于英国议院;他毫无忌惮地当着众议员控告罗马教廷,并要求对罗马教所赞许的诸多弊端进行改革。他有力地抨击罗马教廷僭越权限和腐化败坏的行为。他的敌人当场张皇失措,无法应对。当初他的许多朋友和赞助者曾被迫服从上级,所以教会当局确信威克里夫本人既衰老,又孤立,他必向国王和教皇的双重权威低头。可是结果,罗马教的首领们反而惨遭挫败。英国议院听了威克里夫动人的诉辞,便废止了那一道逼迫改正教的御旨,威克里夫的自由也就恢复了。     Wycliffe appealed from the synod to Parliament; he fearlessly arraigned the hierarchy before the national council and demanded a reform of the enormous abuses sanctioned by the church. With convincing power he portrayed the usurpation and corruptions of the papal see. His enemies were brought to confusion. The friends and supporters of Wycliffe had been forced to yield, and it had been confidently expected that the Reformer himself, in his old age, alone and friendless, would bow to the combined authority of the crown and the miter. But instead of this the papists saw themselves defeated. Parliament, roused by the stirring appeals of Wycliffe, repealed the persecuting edict, and the Reformer was again at liberty. {GC 89.4}
     
31  威克里夫第三次受审乃是在全国教会最高权威的审判案前。这机构是绝不能同情任何“异端”的。这次罗马教廷以为自己必能胜利了,而改革家的工作也必然停止。如果他们真能达到目的,威克里夫就必被迫否定自己的教训,不然就必从审判厅一直走向火刑场去了。     A third time he was brought to trial, and now before the highest ecclesiastical tribunal in the kingdom. Here no favor would be shown to heresy. Here at last Rome would triumph, and the Reformer's work would be stopped. So thought the papists. If they could but accomplish their purpose, Wycliffe would be forced to abjure his doctrines, or would leave the court only for the flames. {GC 90.1}
     
32  可是威克里夫没有收回他的言论;他不肯作一个口是心非的人。他勇敢地坚持自己的教义,并反驳了敌人的控告。他一时忘记了自己和自己的地位,以及当时的场合,却把听众带到上帝的审判台前;并把他们那似是而非的理论,和欺骗人的虚言放在真理的天秤上衡量一下。那时在场的众人感觉到圣灵的能力。上帝使众人听得目瞪口呆。他们似乎没有能力离开他们的座位。威克里夫的话好像是上帝的利箭穿透他们的心,他将人所加在他身上叛教的罪名反而有力地加在他们头上了。他质问他们说:“你们怎敢散布你们错谬的道理?怎敢拿上帝的恩典作为生财之道?”     But Wycliffe did not retract; he would not dissemble. He fearlessly maintained his teachings and repelled the accusations of his persecutors. Losing sight of himself, of his position, of the occasion, he summoned his hearers before the divine tribunal, and weighed their sophistries and deceptions in the balances of eternal truth. The power of the Holy Spirit was felt in the council room. A spell from God was upon the hearers. They seemed to have no power to leave the place. As arrows from the Lord's quiver, the Reformer's words pierced their hearts. The charge of heresy, which they had brought against him, he with convincing power threw back upon themselves. Why, he demanded, did they dare to spread their errors? For the sake of gain, to make merchandise of the grace of God? {GC 90.2}
     
33  最后他说:“你们所反抗的对象是谁呢?是一个行将就木的老人么?不是,你们所抗拒的乃是真理,这真理比你们强,而且终必战胜你们!”(注五)威克里夫说了这话,便退出会场,也没有人敢阻止他。     "With whom, think you," he finally said, "are ye contending? with an old man on the brink of the grave? No! with Truth--Truth which is stronger than you, and will overcome you."--Wylie, b. 2, ch. 13. So saying, he withdrew from the assembly, and not one of his adversaries attempted to prevent him. {GC 90.3}
     
34  威克里夫的工作行将结束了。他多年高举的真理旗帜,这时快要从他手里落下来了;可是他还要为福音作一次见证。他将要在悖谬的道理的中心堡垒将真理传开。威克里夫竟被传到罗马教皇的审判案前受审。这个机构曾多次流了圣徒的血。他对于在罗马所必遭的危险是可以预料的,但他决心要去受审。无奈他身体忽然瘫痪了,无法启程前往。他虽然不能在罗马亲口发言,但他仍然可以用书信发表意见。他决心这样作。他从洛特勿教区写了一封信给教皇。其中的语气是很恭敬的,表现了基督的精神,同时对罗马教廷的奢华和骄傲的作风,予以痛痛的指责。     Wycliffe's work was almost done; the banner of truth which he had so long borne was soon to fall from his hand; but once more he was to bear witness for the gospel. The truth was to be proclaimed from the very stronghold of the kingdom of error. Wycliffe was summoned for trial before the papal tribunal at Rome, which had so often shed the blood of the saints. He was not blind to the danger that threatened him, yet he would have obeyed the summons had not a shock of palsy made it impossible for him to perform the journey. But though his voice was not to be heard at Rome, he could speak by letter, and this he determined to do. From his rectory the Reformer wrote to the pope a letter, which, while respectful in tone and Christian in spirit, was a keen rebuke to the pomp and pride of the papal see. {GC 90.4}
     
35  威克里夫写道:“我极欢喜向人人宣讲我的信仰,更喜欢向罗马的主教这样作。我认为我这信仰是健全真实的,我想罗马主教也必欣然赞同,若不然,我希望他能纠正我。     "Verily I do rejoice," he said, "to open and declare unto every man the faith which I do hold, and especially unto the bishop of Rome: which, forasmuch as I do suppose to be sound and true, he will most willingly confirm my said faith, or if it be erroneous, amend the same. {GC 91.1}
     
36  “第一、我认为基督的福音乃是上帝律法的全部,……教皇既是基督在地上的代理人,我认为他就比别人更有责任遵守福音的律法。因为基督门徒的伟大,并不在于属世的尊荣,乃是在于生活和行动遵循基督的榜样,……基督在世上生活的时候,他是最贫穷的人,他曾推辞并拒绝一切属世的权柄和尊荣。……     "First, I suppose that the gospel of Christ is the whole body of God's law. . . . I do give and hold the bishop of Rome, forasmuch as he is the vicar of Christ here on earth, to be most bound, of all other men, unto that law of the gospel. For the greatness among Christ's disciples did not consist in worldly dignity or honors, but in the near and exact following of Christ in His life and manners.... Christ, for the time of His pilgrimage here, was a most poor man, abjecting and casting off all worldly rule and honor. . . . {GC 91.2}
     
37  “除非教皇或任何古代圣贤,效法主耶稣基督;则任何忠心的信徒都不应该效法他们,因为彼得和西庇太的儿子曾偏离基督的脚步而贪图属世的虚荣。在这一点上他们也作错了,所以信徒不可学他们去犯错误。……     "No faithful man ought to follow either the pope himself or any of the holy men, but in such points as he hath followed the Lord Jesus Christ; for Peter and the sons of Zebedee, by desiring worldly honor, contrary to the following of Christ's steps, did offend, and therefore in those errors they are not to be followed. . . . {GC 91.3}
     
38  “教皇应该将一切属世的权威和地位让给属世的政权,并劝他手下的全体僧侣们也要如此,基督是这样的劝我们,更借着他的使徒劝我们。所以我若在这几点上说错了,我就甘愿被纠正,如果必须受死刑也是可以的;如果我可以照自己的意思行,我定要亲身晋谒罗马主教;可是主对我另有指示;并教训我要听从上帝,而不听从人。”     "The pope ought to leave unto the secular power all temporal dominion and rule, and thereunto effectually to move and exhort his whole clergy; for so did Christ, and especially by His apostles. Wherefore, if I have erred in any of these points, I will most humbly submit myself unto correction, even by death, if necessity so require; and if I could labor according to my will or desire in mine own person, I would surely present myself before the bishop of Rome; but the Lord hath otherwise visited me to the contrary, and hath taught me rather to obey God than men." {GC 91.4}
     
39  最后他说:“我们要祈祷上帝,求他象古时一样感动我们的教皇尔班六世,使他和他的神父们在生活和行动上效法主耶稣基督;并有效地教训众人,使他们也能忠心地在这事上效法他们。”(注六)     In closing he said: "Let us pray unto our God, that He will so stir up our Pope Urban VI, as he began, that he with his clergy may follow the Lord Jesus Christ in life and manners; and that they may teach the people effectually, and that they, likewise, may faithfully follow them in the same."--John Foxe, Acts and Monuments, vol. 3, pp. 49, 50. {GC 92.1}
     
40  威克里夫如此将基督的谦卑和虚己向教皇和他的红衣主教们说明,并将他们和他们所想代表的主之间的差别显明给他们自己和全世界看。     Thus Wycliffe presented to the pope and his cardinals the meekness and humility of Christ, exhibiting not only to themselves but to all Christendom the contrast between them and the Master whose representatives they professed to be. {GC 92.2}
     
41  威克里夫以为他终必为自己的忠贞殉身。国王,教皇,和主教们都联合起来要除灭他,所以看上去再过几个月,他就要受火刑了。可是他并不为此而沮丧。他对人说:“你们何必说要在远处寻找殉道者的冠冕呢?只要传福音给傲慢的主教们听,殉道的命运就必是你们的了。什么!我要为苟延性命而保持缄默么?……绝对不可!任由他们杀我吧,我正等着他们呢!”(注七)     Wycliffe fully expected that his life would be the price of his fidelity. The king, the pope, and the bishops were united to accomplish his ruin, and it seemed certain that a few months at most would bring him to the stake. But his courage was unshaken. "Why do you talk of seeking the crown of martyrdom afar?" he said. "Preach the gospel of Christ to haughty prelates, and martyrdom will not fail you. What! I should live and be silent? . . . Never! Let the blow fall, I await its coming."--D'Aubigne, b. 17, ch. 8. {GC 92.3}
     
42  然而上帝的膀臂依然护卫着他的仆人。上帝不认可这个一生冒着性命危险为真理而勇敢辩护的人倒在敌人的刀下。威克里夫从来没有想保护自己,但有主作他的保护者;而现在正当他的敌人认为他们的掠物垂手可得之时,上帝却使他们永远害不到他了。威克里夫在洛特勿的教堂中正准备擘饼主领圣餐的时候,突然瘫痪,一病不起了。     But God's providence still shielded His servant. The man who for a whole lifetime had stood boldly in defense of the truth, in daily peril of his life, was not to fall a victim of the hatred of its foes. Wycliffe had never sought to shield himself, but the Lord had been his protector; and now, when his enemies felt sure of their prey, God's hand removed him beyond their reach. In his church at Lutterworth, as he was about to dispense the communion, he fell, stricken with palsy, and in a short time yielded up his life. {GC 92.4}
     
43  威克里夫的工作是上帝所安排的。上帝曾将真理的道放在他的口中,并派天使保护他,使他的话可以达到众人的耳中。上帝保守了他的性命,并延长了他工作的时期,直到他为宗教改革的工作奠定了基础为止。     God had appointed to Wycliffe his work. He had put the word of truth in his mouth, and He set a guard about him that this word might come to the people. His life was protected, and his labors were prolonged, until a foundation was laid for the great work of the Reformation. {GC 92.5}
     
44  威克里夫出身于中古黑暗时代之中。在他以前并没有改革家可资效法。上帝兴起他来象兴起施洗约翰一样。有特别的任务要完成,并作一个新纪元的先锋。虽然如此,他所传之真理系统的统一和完全,是百年以后的改革家所未能超过的,而且也有一些人未能赶得上他。他所立的根基是那么宽而且深,所有的结构又是那么坚稳,以致后起的人不需要重新建造。     Wycliffe came from the obscurity of the Dark Ages. There were none who went before him from whose work he could shape his system of reform. Raised up like John the Baptist to accomplish a special mission, he was the herald of a new era. Yet in the system of truth which he presented there was a unity and completeness which Reformers who followed him did not exceed, and which some did not reach, even a hundred years later. So broad and deep was laid the foundation, so firm and true was the framework, that it needed not to be reconstructed by those who came after him. {GC 93.1}
     
45  威克里夫所发起的伟大运动,终于解放了人的良心和理智,并使多年受罗马教廷辖制的许多国家也得到解放。这一个运动的根源乃是《圣经》。《圣经》是恩惠河流的源头。这河流如同生命水的江河一样,从十四世纪一直流到现代。威克里夫笃信《圣经》为上帝旨意的启示,并是信心和行为的全备标准。他所受的教育,曾令他相信罗马教会为神圣而绝无错误的权威,并以毫无疑问的敬畏,接受千古不变的教义和习惯;可是威克里夫终于转离了这一切,去听从上帝的圣言。这就是他劝告众人所要承认的权威。他声称那唯一的真权威,不是教会借教皇的口所讲的话,乃是上帝在《圣经》中所讲的话。他非但教训人《圣经》是上帝旨意的全备启示,而且圣灵乃是解释《圣经》的唯一权威,并且每一个人必须研究其中的教训,亲自看出自己的义务。这样,他就使众人转离教皇和罗马教会,去注意上帝的《圣经》了。     The great movement that Wycliffe inaugurated, which was to liberate the conscience and the intellect, and set free the nations so long bound to the triumphal car of Rome, had its spring in the Bible. Here was the source of that stream of blessing, which, like the water of life, has flowed down the ages since the fourteenth century. Wycliffe accepted the Holy Scriptures with implicit faith as the inspired revelation of God's will, a sufficient rule of faith and practice. He had been educated to regard the Church of Rome as the divine, infallible authority, and to accept with unquestioning reverence the established teachings and customs of a thousand years; but he turned away from all these to listen to God's holy word. This was the authority which he urged the people to acknowledge. Instead of the church speaking through the pope, he declared the only true authority to be the voice of God speaking through His word. And he taught not only that the Bible is a perfect revelation of God's will, but that the Holy Spirit is its only interpreter, and that every man is, by the study of its teachings, to learn his duty for himself. Thus he turned the minds of men from the pope and the Church of Rome to the word of God.
     
46  威克里夫在宗教改革家中是最伟大的一位。他渊博的学识,清新的思想,以及坚持真理的毅力和为真理辩护的勇敢,是后起的人很少能相与比拟的。这一位改革家先锋的特点乃是生活上的廉洁,研究和工作上的殷勤,不受腐蚀的正直,基督化的爱,和服务上的忠心。鉴于当代社会的黑暗和道德的败落,这些优点,就更显得难能可贵了。     Wycliffe was one of the greatest of the Reformers. In breadth of intellect, in clearness of thought, in firmness to maintain the truth, and in boldness to defend it, he was equaled by few who came after him. Purity of life, unwearying diligence in study and in labor, incorruptible integrity, and Christlike love and faithfulness in his ministry, characterized the first of the Reformers. And this notwithstanding the intellectual darkness and moral corruption of the age from which he emerged. {GC 94.1}
     
47  威克里夫的人格说明《圣经》教育并改造人心的能力。他所以能达到那么高的程度,完全是因了《圣经》。当人努力探讨上帝所启示的伟大真理时,就能使各部机能得着新的力量。这种操练能使心智发达,理解力增强,鉴别力熟练。《圣经》的研究能提高人的每一种思想,感情,和愿望。这是任何其他学科所作不到的。它能使人有坚稳的志向,忍耐,勇敢和毅力;能锻炼人的品质,使心灵成圣。人若恭敬地认真研究《圣经》,使自己的思想接触无限的思想,就能为社会造就具有强健智力和高尚行动原则的才干。这样的人绝非属世哲学的训练所能栽培出来的。诗人说,“你的言语一解开,就发出亮光,使愚人通达。”(诗119:130)     The character of Wycliffe is a testimony to the educating, transforming power of the Holy Scriptures. It was the Bible that made him what he was. The effort to grasp the great truths of revelation imparts freshness and vigor to all the faculties. It expands the mind, sharpens the perceptions, and ripens the judgment. The study of the Bible will ennoble every thought, feeling, and aspiration as no other study can. It gives stability of purpose, patience, courage, and fortitude; it refines the character and sanctifies the soul. An earnest, reverent study of the Scriptures, bringing the mind of the student in direct contact with the infinite mind, would give to the world men of stronger and more active intellect, as well as of nobler principle, than has ever resulted from the ablest training that human philosophy affords. "The entrance of Thy words," says the psalmist, "giveth light; it giveth understanding." Psalm 119:130. {GC 94.2}
     
48  威克里夫的教义继续传了相当的一段时期之后,通俗称他的门人为“威克里夫派”或“洛拉尔德人”。他们非但走遍英国,也带着福音的知识走遍外国。他们的夫子既已去世,这些传道人就比以前更加殷勤作工了,也有成群的人蜂拥来听他们的教训。贵族中,甚至连王后,也有悔改归主的。许多地方民众的生活有了显著的转变,许多教堂里也取消了罗马教为敬拜而陈设的偶像。可是过了不久,逼迫教会的风暴就向一切胆敢以《圣经》作为向导的人发作了。英国国王为要得到罗马教廷的支持,借以巩固自己的势力起见,就毫无顾忌地牺牲了国内的宗教改革者。于是他就下令取缔他们,定他们受火刑;这是英国有史以来空前的一次逼迫,殉道的事件就相继发生了。真理的辩护人既不能受法律的保护,又为敌人所苦害,只得向万军之主上诉呼求了。他们虽被斥为教会的死敌和国家的蟊贼,但却能继续地秘密传道,尽可能地在穷苦人家借宿,往往甚至藏在山洞和石穴里。     The doctrines which had been taught by Wycliffe continued for a time to spread; his followers, known as Wycliffites and Lollards, not only traversed England, but scattered to other lands, carrying the knowledge of the gospel. Now that their leader was removed, the preachers labored with even greater zeal than before, and multitudes flocked to listen to their teachings. Some of the nobility, and even the wife of the king, were among the converts. In many places there was a marked reform in the manners of the people, and the idolatrous symbols of Romanism were removed from the churches. But soon the pitiless storm of persecution burst upon those who had dared to accept the Bible as their guide. The English monarchs, eager to strengthen their power by securing the support of Rome, did not hesitate to sacrifice the Reformers. For the first time in the history of England the stake was decreed against the disciples of the gospel. Martyrdom succeeded martyrdom. The advocates of truth, proscribed and tortured, could only pour their cries into the ear of the Lord of Sabaoth. Hunted as foes of the church and traitors to the realm, they continued to preach in secret places, finding shelter as best they could in the humble homes of the poor, and often hiding away even in dens and caves. {GC 94.3}
     
49  逼迫虽然剧烈,但教徒仍不断地向当时普遍存在的腐败信仰,提出沉着,虔诚,恳挚和忍耐的抗议。当代的基督徒对真理虽然只有局部的认识,可是他们热爱上帝的道,并乐于遵行,所以也忍耐地为真理受苦。其中有许多人像使徒时代的门徒一样,为基督的缘故牺牲了他们属世的财产。凡能继续住在自己家中的人,快乐地收容了被驱逐的弟兄;及至他们自己也被驱逐时,便快乐地忍受流浪者的命运。固然,有成千的人因逼迫者的威力而吓倒。并为苟全性命而放弃了信仰。他们从监狱里出来时,披着忏悔者的礼服,游行示众。但坚持信仰的人也不在少数。其中有穷人也有贵族。他们在地窟里,和所谓“洛拉尔德人”中,并在苦刑和火焰中,勇敢地为真理作见证。他们都因配得“和他一同受苦”而欢喜。     Notwithstanding the rage of persecution, a calm, devout, earnest, patient protest against the prevailing corruption of religious faith continued for centuries to be uttered. The Christians of that early time had only a partial knowledge of the truth, but they had learned to love and obey God's word, and they patiently suffered for its sake. Like the disciples in apostolic days, many sacrificed their worldly possessions for the cause of Christ. Those who were permitted to dwell in their homes gladly sheltered their banished brethren, and when they too were driven forth they cheerfully accepted the lot of the outcast. Thousands, it is true, terrified by the fury of their persecutors, purchased their freedom at the sacrifice of their faith, and went out of their prisons, clothed in penitents' robes, to publish their recantation. But the number was not small--and among them were men of noble birth as well as the humble and lowly--who bore fearless testimony to the truth in dungeon cells, in "Lollard towers," and in the midst of torture and flame, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to know "the fellowship of His sufferings." {GC 95.1}
     
50  罗马教的首领们未能当威克里夫在世的时候将事办得称心,及至他死了之后,他们还不满意。在他去世后四十年,罗马教在康士坦司所开的会议通过议案,将威克里夫的遗骸掘出来,当众焚烧,然后将骨灰抛在附近的河浜里。一位古代的作家写道,“这个河浜将他的骨灰送入阿方河,阿方河流入塞文河,塞文河注入沧海,于是就进入大洋了。如此威克里夫的骨灰象征他的教义,现在已经撒布到全世界。”(注八)他的敌人这样向他泄愤,可是没有想到他们这种恶毒的行为有了多么深远的意义。     The papists had failed to work their will with Wycliffe during his life, and their hatred could not be satisfied while his body rested quietly in the grave. By the decree of the Council of Constance, more than forty years after his death his bones were exhumed and publicly burned, and the ashes were thrown into a neighboring brook. "This brook," says an old writer, "hath conveyed his ashes into Avon, Avon into Severn, Severn into the narrow seas, they into the main ocean. And thus the ashes of Wycliffe are the emblem of his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world over."-- T. Fuller, Church History of Britain, b. 4, sec. 2, par. 54. Little did his enemies realize the significance of their malicious act. {GC 95.2}
     
51  后来波希米亚的胡斯约翰放弃了罗马教的许多谬道,着手改革的工作,也是因为看了威克里夫的作品。这样,真理的种子得以散布在两个相隔很远的国家。从波希米亚,这工作又发展到别的国家。许多人的思想就转向那久被遗忘的《圣经》了。可见为宗教改革大运动铺平道路的,乃是神圣的手。     It was through the writings of Wycliffe that John Huss, of Bohemia, was led to renounce many of the errors of Romanism and to enter upon the work of reform. Thus in these two countries, so widely separated, the seed of truth was sown. From Bohemia the work extended to other lands. The minds of men were directed to the long-forgotten word of God. A divine hand was preparing the way for the Great Reformation. {GC 96.1}
收藏 推荐 打印 | 录入:迎风草 | 阅读:
相关新闻       怀著研究 
本文评论   查看全部评论 (3)
表情: 表情 姓名: 字数
点评:
       
评论声明
  • 尊重网上道德,遵守中华人民共和国的各项有关法律法规
  • 承担一切因您的行为而直接或间接导致的民事或刑事法律责任
  • 本站管理人员有权保留或删除其管辖留言中的任意内容
  • 本站有权在网站内转载或引用您的评论
  • 参与本评论即表明您已经阅读并接受上述条款
第 3 楼
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
回复 过路人会员 的评论
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037
第 2 楼
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
第 1 楼
* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
最新添加
随机新闻
热门评论
* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037