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善恶之争

第六章 两位殉道英雄

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录

 

两位殉道英雄     Huss and Jerome
     
01  早在第九世纪时,福音就已传到波希米亚了,那时《圣经》业已译成通行的方言,礼拜聚会也用普通的语言。可是教皇的势力渐渐增强,上帝的话就被埋没了。教皇贵钩利七世既从事于压制诸王的威风,又专心于奴役各地的人民,于是便颁布旨意,禁止用波希米亚语举行礼拜。教皇声称,“全能者乐意叫人用一种听不懂的语言举行礼拜。正因人们没有遵守这个法则,所以发生了许多的弊病和异端。”(注一)罗马教廷用这种方法消灭《圣经》的光辉,使人民陷于黑暗之中。然而上帝已经另有安排,为要保守他的教会。有许多瓦典西人和阿比坚斯人于此时因受逼迫而被驱逐离开法国和意大利的家乡,来到波希米亚。这些人虽然不敢公开传道,但他们却热心地秘密工作。真的信仰就如此一世纪一世纪地保持下来。     The gospel had been planted in Bohemia as early as the ninth century. The Bible was translated, and public worship was conducted, in the language of the people. But as the power of the pope increased, so the word of God was obscured. Gregory VII, who had taken it upon himself to humble the pride of kings, was no less intent upon enslaving the people, and accordingly a bull was issued forbidding public worship to be conducted in the Bohemian tongue. The pope declared that "it was pleasing to the Omnipotent that His worship should be celebrated in an unknown language, and that many evils and heresies had arisen from not observing this rule."--Wylie, b. 3, ch. 1. Thus Rome decreed that the light of God's word should be extinguished and the people should be shut up in darkness. But Heaven had provided other agencies for the preservation of the church. Many of the Waldenses and Albigenses, driven by persecution from their homes in France and Italy, came to Bohemia. Though they dared not teach openly, they labored zealously in secret. Thus the true faith was preserved from century to century. {GC 97.1}
     
02  在胡斯以前,波希米亚境内曾有多人起来,公然指责教会的腐败和社会的荒淫。他们的工作引起了普遍的注意。罗马教廷因而警惕起来,发起镇压信从福音者的运动。这些信徒被迫在森林和山野中举行礼拜,于是教皇派兵去剿灭他们,其中有许多被杀戮的。再过不久,教会宣布凡偏离罗马教礼拜仪式的人都必须受火刑。许多基督徒虽然牺牲了性命,他们却指望着自己所信真理的最后胜利。在那些宣讲“惟有相信钉十字架的救主才有救恩”的人中,有一位在殉道的时候说:“真理死敌的威力现在固然能战胜我们,可是这绝不是永久性的;将来从平民中必有一个手无寸铁,没有权威的人,起来与他们对抗,他们也不能胜过他。”(注二)此时离路德马丁的日子固然还远;但这时已经有一个人起来;他反抗罗马教廷的见证将要震撼寰宇。     Before the days of Huss there were men in Bohemia who rose up to condemn openly the corruption in the church and the profligacy of the people. Their labors excited widespread interest. The fears of the hierarchy were roused, and persecution was opened against the disciples of the gospel. Driven to worship in the forests and the mountains, they were hunted by soldiers, and many were put to death. After a time it was decreed that all who departed from the Romish worship should be burned. But while the Christians yielded up their lives, they looked forward to the triumph of their cause. One of those who "taught that salvation was only to be found by faith in the crucified Saviour," declared when dying: "The rage of the enemies of the truth now prevails against us, but it will not be forever; there shall arise one from among the common people, without sword or authority, and against him they shall not be able to prevail." --Ibid., b. 3, ch. 1. Luther's time was yet far distant; but already one was rising, whose testimony against Rome would stir the nations. {GC 97.2}
     
03  胡斯约翰出身卑微,早年丧父。他敬虔的母亲认明教育和敬畏上帝的心,乃是最宝贵的基业,便设法为她的儿子争取这个权益。胡斯先在公立学校读书,后来进布拉格大学为免费生。他的母亲陪他到布拉格去;她既是寡妇,又贫穷,就没有什么属世的财物可以送给她的孩子,可是在进城之前,她和孩子一同跪下祈祷,为他求天父的厚恩。当时母亲可没有想到所献上的祈祷要如何蒙应允。     John Huss was of humble birth, and was early left an orphan by the death of his father. His pious mother, regarding education and the fear of God as the most valuable of possessions, sought to secure this heritage for her son. Huss studied at the provincial school, and then repaired to the university at Prague, receiving admission as a charity scholar. He was accompanied on the journey to Prague by his mother; widowed and poor, she had no gifts of worldly wealth to bestow upon her son, but as they drew near to the great city, she kneeled down beside the fatherless youth and invoked for him the blessing of their Father in heaven. Little did that mother realize how her prayer was to be answered. {GC 98.1}
     
04  在大学里,胡斯好学不倦,进步极快,同时他那纯正的人格和温雅可爱的风度,博得一般人的尊敬。那时他是罗马教会的忠实信徒,经常地热心寻求教会所自称有权赐与的福分。在某次大节期时,他在一个神父面前认罪之后,便从自己囊中捐出仅存的几文钱,随即又参加游行,为要在所应许的大赦上有份。大学毕业后,胡斯献身作神父,随即扶摇直上,不久便在王廷有了地位。他同时在母校任教授,后来作了校长。过不几年,他竟成了国人景仰,天下闻名的俊才了。     At the university, Huss soon distinguished himself by his untiring application and rapid progress, while his blameless life and gentle, winning deportment gained him universal esteem. He was a sincere adherent of the Roman Church and an earnest seeker for the spiritual blessings which it professes to bestow. On the occasion of a jubilee he went to confession, paid the last few coins in his scanty store, and joined in the processions, that he might share in the absolution promised. After completing his college course, he entered the priesthood, and rapidly attaining to eminence, he soon became attached to the court of the king. He was also made professor and afterward rector of the university where he had received his education. In a few years the humble charity scholar had become the pride of his country, and his name was renowned throughout Europe. {GC 98.2}
     
05  然而胡斯开始改革运动乃是在另一个服务地点。他作了神父数年之后,被委作布拉格城内伯利恒堂的传道士。该堂的创办者曾竭力主张用民间流行的方言宣讲《圣经》。这种常例虽为罗马教廷所反对,但在波希米亚境内始终没有完全停止。当时对《圣经》有认识的人极少,而且社会各阶层中普遍存在着极腐败的现象。胡斯毫不留情地斥责这些罪恶,用《圣经》的话来加强他所宣传真实和纯正的道理。     But it was in another field that Huss began the work of reform. Several years after taking priest's orders he was appointed preacher of the chapel of Bethlehem. The founder of this chapel had advocated, as a matter of great importance, the preaching of the Scriptures in the language of the people. Notwithstanding Rome's opposition to this practice, it had not been wholly discontinued in Bohemia. But there was great ignorance of the Bible, and the worst vices prevailed among the people of all ranks. These evils Huss unsparingly denounced, appealing to the word of God to enforce the principles of truth and purity which he inculcated. {GC 99.1}
     
06  这时布拉格的一位市民耶罗米,就是后来和胡斯密切合作的一位,从英国带了威克里夫的一些作品回来。同时英国皇后本为波希米亚的公主,既因威克里夫的教训而悔改信主,就设法使威克里夫的作品能在波希米亚普及起来。胡期读了这些作品,深感兴趣;他相信作者必是一个真诚的基督徒,他也大致上赞同威克里夫所提倡的改革,胡斯这时已经在无意之中走上一条必要使他与罗马教廷决裂的道路了。     A citizen of Prague, Jerome, who afterward became so closely associated with Huss, had, on returning from England, brought with him the writings of Wycliffe. The queen of England, who had been a convert to Wycliffe's teachings, was a Bohemian princess, and through her influence also the Reformer's works were widely circulated in her native country. These works Huss read with interest; he believed their author to be a sincere Christian and was inclined to regard with favor the reforms which he advocated. Already, though he knew it not, Huss had entered upon a path which was to lead him far away from Rome. {GC 99.2}
     
07  此时,有两个学者从英国来到布拉格。他们于领受了真光之后,就来到这遥远的地带进行宣传福音。他们一开始就公开抨击教皇的至上权威,但很快就受到当局的制裁;他们不愿就此放弃自己的宗旨,于是改变了工作方式。他们既是传道人,又是艺术家,遂下手运用他们的技能。他们找到一个公共场所,在那里画了两幅图画。一幅画着基督进入耶路撒冷,“是温柔的,又骑着驴,”(太21:5)在后面有门徒,穿着旧衣服,赤着脚跟从他。另一幅则绘着教皇巡行图,──教皇身穿华丽的衣服,头戴三层冠冕,骑着一匹装饰富丽的马,前面有人吹着号筒开道,后面有许多威风凛凛的红衣主教,高僧,教长等相随。     About this time there arrived in Prague two strangers from England, men of learning, who had received the light and had come to spread it in this distant land. Beginning with an open attack on the pope's supremacy, they were soon silenced by the authorities; but being unwilling to relinquish their purpose, they had recourse to other measures. Being artists as well as preachers, they proceeded to exercise their skill. In a place open to the public they drew two pictures. One represented the entrance of Christ into Jerusalem, "meek, and sitting upon an ass" (Matthew 21:5), and followed by His disciples in travel-worn garments and with naked feet. The other picture portrayed a pontifical procession--the pope arrayed in his rich robes and triple crown, mounted upon a horse magnificently adorned, preceded by trumpeters and followed by cardinals and prelates in dazzling array. {GC 99.3}
     
08  这两幅意味深长的图画,人人看了无不注意。成群的人看了又看,而且都明白其中的意义。许多人看到主基督的谦卑自虚,和自称为基督仆人的教皇的骄傲自大,不得不因其间的差别而深受感动。布拉格合城轰动了,以致那两位外人不得不为自己的安全而离开。但他们所留下的教训却没有被人忘记。那两幅图画在胡斯心中留下了深刻的印象,使他更殷切地研究《圣经》和威克里夫的作品。这时他虽然还不能接受威克里夫所提倡的全部改革方案,但他对教廷的真面目却有了更清楚的认识,于是他更热切地斥责教廷的骄傲,野心和腐败。     Here was a sermon which arrested the attention of all classes. Crowds came to gaze upon the drawings. None could fail to read the moral, and many were deeply impressed by the contrast between the meekness and humility of Christ the Master and the pride and arrogance of the pope, His professed servant. There was great commotion in Prague, and the strangers after a time found it necessary, for their own safety, to depart. But the lesson they had taught was not forgotten. The pictures made a deep impression on the mind of Huss and led him to a closer study of the Bible and of Wycliffe's writings. Though he was not prepared, even yet, to accept all the reforms advocated by Wycliffe, he saw more clearly the true character of the papacy, and with greater zeal denounced the pride, the ambition, and the corruption of the hierarchy. {GC 100.1}
     
09  真光从波希米亚终于传到德国;因为布拉格大学中起了一次风潮,以致成百的德国学生自动退学。其中有许多人曾从胡斯那里得着有关《圣经》的知识,所以他们回国之后,就在祖国将福音传开了。     From Bohemia the light extended to Germany, for disturbances in the University of Prague caused the withdrawal of hundreds of German students. Many of them had received from Huss their first knowledge of the Bible, and on their return they spread the gospel in their fatherland. {GC 100.2}
     
10  布拉格改革工作的消息传到罗马;不久就有命令叫胡斯去向教皇作交代。他若遵命前往则难免一死。于是波希米亚的国王和王后,布拉格大学,贵族人士,和政府人员联名请求教皇准胡斯留在布拉格,而派代表去罗马。教皇非但没有允准,反而继续进行审问并判胡斯的罪,又向布拉格全城宣布了一道咒诅令。     Tidings of the work at Prague were carried to Rome, and Huss was soon summoned to appear before the pope. To obey would be to expose himself to certain death. The king and queen of Bohemia, the university, members of the nobility, and officers of the government united in an appeal to the pontiff that Huss be permitted to remain at Prague and to answer at Rome by deputy. Instead of granting this request, the pope proceeded to the trial and condemnation of Huss, and then declared the city of Prague to be under interdict.
     
11  在那个时代,教皇无论向哪一地宣布咒诅令,就必引起普遍的惊慌。其所附带的仪式,也足以使民众大大恐怖,因为一般人都相信教皇乃是上帝的代表,并且握有天国和地狱的钥匙,无论是在属世或属灵的事上,都有权柄惩罚人。他们相信一个地区既受教皇咒诅,该地居民就不可能进入天国了;而且在那里死了的人,除非教皇取消禁令,一概无法升天。为要充分表明这种可怕的灾祸起见,一切宗教聚会都停止了;教堂也关闭了。婚礼只能在教堂外院举行;死人不得葬在教会的坟地,也没有神父来主持丧礼,所以死人只得葬在山沟或野地里。罗马教廷想用这种足以吓人的手段来控制他们的良心。     In that age this sentence, whenever pronounced, created widespread alarm. The ceremonies by which it was accompanied were well adapted to strike terror to a people who looked upon the pope as the representative of God Himself, holding the keys of heaven and hell, and possessing power to invoke temporal as well as spiritual judgments. It was believed that the gates of heaven were closed against the region smitten with interdict; that until it should please the pope to remove the ban, the dead were shut out from the abodes of bliss. In token of this terrible calamity, all the services of religion were suspended. The churches were closed. Marriages were solemnized in the churchyard. The dead, denied burial in consecrated ground, were interred, without the rites of sepulture, in the ditches or the fields. Thus by measures which appealed to the imagination, Rome essayed to control the consciences of men. {GC 101.1}
     
12  于是布拉格全城大大骚动了。许多人斥责胡斯为他们的祸源,并声称非把他交给罗马教廷去惩办不可。为平息这次风波起见,胡期暂时避到他自己的本乡。他写信给留在城里的朋友说:“我为了避免让恶人自取永久的咒诅,同时不为敬虔的人惹起患难和逼迫起见,乃依照耶稣基督的教训和榜样,从你们中间退避出来。我隐退的另一个原因,乃是恐怕我留在城里,不虔诚的神父们就一直不许人在你们中间传道;可是我离开你们,并不是为要否认神圣的真理,只要有上帝帮助,我甘愿为真理牺牲性命。”(注三)胡期没有停止工作,他周游乡间,却也有成群的人听他讲道。如此,教皇为镇压福音而采取的措施,反而使福音更加广传了。“我们凡事不能敌挡真理,只能扶助真理。”(林后13:8)     The city of Prague was filled with tumult. A large class denounced Huss as the cause of all their calamities and demanded that he be given up to the vengeance of Rome. To quiet the storm, the Reformer withdrew for a time to his native village. Writing to the friends whom he had left at Prague, he said: "If I have withdrawn from the midst of you, it is to follow the precept and example of Jesus Christ, in order not to give room to the ill-minded to draw on themselves eternal condemnation, and in order not to be to the pious a cause of affliction and persecution. I have retired also through an apprehension that impious priests might continue for a longer time to prohibit the preaching of the word of God amongst you; but I have not quitted you to deny the divine truth, for which, with God's assistance, I am willing to die."--Bonnechose, The Reformers Before the Reformation, vol. 1, p. 87. Huss did not cease his labors, but traveled through the surrounding country, preaching to eager crowds. Thus the measures to which the pope resorted to suppress the gospel were causing it to be the more widely extended. "We can do nothing against the truth, but for the truth." 2 Corinthians 13:8.
     
13  “胡斯在这一段经历中,思想上所经过的一番痛苦挣扎是可想而知的。教会虽然正在向他大发雷霆,想要把他制伏,他却还没有否定教会的权威。在他看来,罗马教还是基督的新妇,教皇也是上帝的代表和代理人。胡斯所反对的乃是权威的滥用,而不是这原则的本身。因此,他理智所能了解的事实和他所原有的信仰信条之间起了剧烈的战争。他既相信教会的权威是正确而绝无错误的,那么他为什么又不得不抗拒这权威呢?他看出来若是服从,就要犯罪;可是所服从的既是绝无错误的教廷,又何至有这种结果呢?这是他无法解决的问题,又是时时刻刻叫他极其苦恼的疑难。他所能想出来的最近情理的解释,乃是当时的教廷重蹈了救主时代犹太首长们的覆辙,以致教会的神父们已经腐化了,并滥用合法的教权去进行不合法的事。于是他为自己定了一个原则,也教训别人这样做,那就是《圣经》的训言通过人的理性,必须作为良心的准则;换句话说,那唯一绝无错误的向导乃是上帝在《圣经》中所讲的话,而不是教会借着神父们所讲的话。”(注四)     "The mind of Huss, at this stage of his career, would seem to have been the scene of a painful conflict. Although the church was seeking to overwhelm him by her thunderbolts, he had not renounced her authority. The Roman Church was still to him the spouse of Christ, and the pope was the representative and vicar of God. What Huss was warring against was the abuse of authority, not the principle itself. This brought on a terrible conflict between the convictions of his understanding and the claims of his conscience. If the authority was just and infallible, as he believed it to be, how came it that he felt compelled to disobey it? To obey, he saw, was to sin; but why should obedience to an infallible church lead to such an issue? This was the problem he could not solve; this was the doubt that tortured him hour by hour. The nearest approximation to a solution which he was able to make was that it had happened again, as once before in the days of the Saviour, that the priests of the church had become wicked persons and were using their lawful authority for unlawful ends. This led him to adopt for his own guidance, and to preach to others for theirs, the maxim that the precepts of Scripture, conveyed through the understanding, are to rule the conscience; in other words, that God speaking in the Bible, and not the church speaking through the priesthood, is the one infallible guide."--Wylie, b. 3, ch. 2. {GC 102.1}
     
14  布拉格的紧张空气渐渐缓和下来了,于是胡斯回到伯利恒堂,以加倍的热心和勇敢传讲上帝的道。他的敌人固然非常活跃,又有势力,可是王后和许多贵族都是他的朋友,而且民间也有许多人拥护他。许多人看到他的纯正而高尚的教义和廉洁的生活,再看到罗马神父们所传败坏的教义和他们贪婪淫荡的作风,就认为同胡斯站在一条阵线上是光荣的。     When after a time the excitement in Prague subsided, Huss returned to his chapel of Bethlehem, to continue with greater zeal and courage the preaching of the word of God. His enemies were active and powerful, but the queen and many of the nobles were his friends, and the people in great numbers sided with him. Comparing his pure and elevating teachings and holy life with the degrading dogmas which the Romanists preached, and the avarice and debauchery which they practiced, many regarded it an honor to be on his side. {GC 102.2}
     
15  以前胡斯是单独工作的;如今有前在英国接受威克里夫教训的耶罗米来参加改革工作。从此二人生则同生,死则同死。耶罗米有足以博得众人景仰的聪明,在口才和学识方面,尤具特长;但在德行和意志坚强方面,则胡斯较为伟大。他那稳重的判断力足以抑制耶罗米易受冲动的感情。耶罗米也看出胡期的高贵品质,故能虚心接受他的劝告,在二人合作之下,宗教改革的工作就更迅速地展开了。     Hitherto Huss had stood alone in his labors; but now Jerome, who while in England had accepted the teachings of Wycliffe, joined in the work of reform. The two were hereafter united in their lives, and in death they were not to be divided. Brilliancy of genius, eloquence and learning--gifts that win popular favor--were possessed in a pre-eminent degree by Jerome; but in those qualities which constitute real strength of character, Huss was the greater. His calm judgment served as a restraint upon the impulsive spirit of Jerome, who, with true humility, perceived his worth, and yielded to his counsels. Under their united labors the reform was more rapidly extended. {GC 102.3}
     
16  上帝使大量的真光照耀在这两位蒙拣选的人心中,又将罗马教的许多错谬道理向他们显明;但他们并没有领受到上帝所要赐给世人的全部真光。上帝要借他的仆人带领世人脱离罗马教的黑暗;可是他们必须遭遇到许多巨大的障碍,所以上帝根据他们所能领受的程度,逐步引领他们。他们不能一次领受全部真光。他们好像长久住在黑暗中的人,如果突然见到中午的日光,倒要闭眼不敢看了。因此,上帝根据众人所能领受的,将真光一点一点地启示给改革运动的领袖们。从一世纪到另一世纪,必有忠心的工作者相继兴起,在改革的路上更进一步地领导众人。     God permitted great light to shine upon the minds of these chosen men, revealing to them many of the errors of Rome; but they did not receive all the light that was to be given to the world. Through these, His servants, God was leading the people out of the darkness of Romanism; but there were many and great obstacles for them to meet, and He led them on, step by step, as they could bear it. They were not prepared to receive all the light at once. Like the full glory of the noontide sun to those who have long dwelt in darkness, it would, if presented, have caused them to turn away. Therefore He revealed it to the leaders little by little, as it could be received by the people. From century to century, other faithful workers were to follow, to lead the people on still further in the path of reform. {GC 103.1}
     
17  这时罗马教的分裂形势继续发展。后来竟有三个教皇争夺这至尊权,他们的争执使得整个基督教界充满了罪恶和扰乱。他们彼此咒骂还不以为足,后来竟至采用武力。于是各都招兵买马,筹备战争。但他们必须先设法筹款;为要达到此一目的,他们就出卖教会的馈赠,地位和福惠。(见附录一)神父们也跟着上级的领导,学习采用贿赂和武力打倒自己的对头,来巩固自己的地位。胡斯则日益勇敢地痛斥这些人披着宗教外衣所进行的罪恶行为;民众也公开控诉罗马教的首领们为基督教界一切痛苦的祸根。     The schism in the church still continued. Three popes were now contending for the supremacy, and their strife filled Christendom with crime and tumult. Not content with hurling anathemas, they resorted to temporal weapons. Each cast about him to purchase arms and to obtain soldiers. Of course money must be had; and to procure this, the gifts, offices, and blessings of the church were offered for sale. (See Appendix note for page 59.) The priests also, imitating their superiors, resorted to simony and war to humble their rivals and strengthen their own power. With daily increasing boldness Huss thundered against the abominations which were tolerated in the name of religion; and the people openly accused the Romish leaders as the cause of the miseries that overwhelmed Christendom.
     
18  于是布拉格城血腥的战争似乎即将爆发了。正如古时一样,上帝的仆人被斥为“使以色列遭灾的。”(王上18:17)于是全城再度受到教皇的咒诅令,胡斯则又避到本乡去。他在伯利恒堂忠心传道的工作就此结束了。此后,在他为真理殉身之前,他将要在更广大的据点上向全世界基督教徒作见证。     Again the city of Prague seemed on the verge of a bloody conflict. As in former ages, God's servant was accused as "he that troubleth Israel." 1 Kings 18:17. The city was again placed under interdict, and Huss withdrew to his native village. The testimony so faithfully borne from his loved chapel of Bethlehem was ended. He was to speak from a wider stage, to all Christendom, before laying down his life as a witness for the truth. {GC 104.1}
     
19  为了清除当时扰乱欧洲全地的祸害起见,终于在康士坦司召开了一次宗教会议。这会议乃是经西基斯孟皇帝示意,而由互相敌对的三个教皇中的约翰二十三世出名招集的。教皇约翰本人是最不希望举行这一次会议的,因为他自己的人格和作风,即或根据当时僧侣们低下的道德标准来说,也是经不起考验的。但无论如何,他是不敢违抗西基斯孟皇帝意思的。(见附录二)     To cure the evils that were distracting Europe, a general council was summoned to meet at Constance. The council was called at the desire of the emperor Sigismund, by one of the three rival popes, John XXIII. The demand for a council had been far from welcome to Pope John, whose character and policy could ill bear investigation, even by prelates as lax in morals as were the churchmen of those times. He dared not, however, oppose the will of Sigismund. (See Appendix.) {GC 104.2}
     
20  会议的主旨乃在解决教会分裂的问题并根除异端。所以其他两个教皇和宣传新教义的主要人物胡斯皆被邀出席。两个教皇为求安全起见,未敢亲自莅临,只委派代表赴会。教皇约翰虽然是会议的招集人,却也有不少顾虑,他一方面恐怕皇帝蓄意把他废掉,一方面又怕有人要追讨他玷辱教皇位分的种种恶行,以及他走上教皇宝座所犯的罪案。但在他进入康士坦司的时候,他依然大张声势,耀武扬威。在侍从的人中有最高级的僧侣和大队臣仆。全城的神父和长官陪同成群的市民都出去欢迎他。在他的头上有黄金的华盖,由四位首长高擎着。在前面还抬着“圣体”(弥撒祭使用的饼),各红衣主教和贵族们的服装也令人望而生畏。     The chief objects to be accomplished by the council were to heal the schism in the church and to root out heresy. Hence the two antipopes were summoned to appear before it, as well as the leading propagator of the new opinions, John Huss. The former, having regard to their own safety, did not attend in person, but were represented by their delegates. Pope John, while ostensibly the convoker of the council, came to it with many misgivings, suspecting the emperor's secret purpose to depose him, and fearing to be brought to account for the vices which had disgraced the tiara, as well as for the crimes which had secured it. Yet he made his entry into the city of Constance with great pomp, attended by ecclesiastics of the highest rank and followed by a train of courtiers. All the clergy and dignitaries of the city, with an immense crowd of citizens, went out to welcome him. Above his head was a golden canopy, borne by four of the chief magistrates. The host was carried before him, and the rich dresses of the cardinals and nobles made an imposing display. {GC 104.3}
     
21  同时,另有一位旅客在走近康士坦司。胡斯知道前面所等待着他的危险。他和朋友分离时,似乎是永别了;他在路上时,也感觉是走向火刑柱去。他虽然持有波希米亚王和西基斯孟皇帝所发的护照,但他依然准备就死了。     Meanwhile another traveler was approaching Constance. Huss was conscious of the dangers which threatened him. He parted from his friends as if he were never to meet them again, and went on his journey feeling that it was leading him to the stake. Notwithstanding he had obtained a safe-conduct from the king of Bohemia, and received one also from the emperor Sigismund while on his journey, he made all his arrangements in view of the probability of his death. {GC 104.4}
     
22  他写信给在布拉格的友人说:“弟兄们,……我携有国王所发给我的护照去应付我的许多死敌。……我完全相信一位全能的上帝和我的救主;我深信他必垂听你们的诚恳祈祷,将他的聪明智慧赐给我,使我有口才能以抵挡他们;并且他必赐给我圣灵,保守我站稳真理的立场,使我能勇敢地忍受试探,监禁,如果必要的话,就是死在酷刑之下也可。耶稣基督既为他所爱的人受苦,留下榜样,使我们也要忍受一切痛苦以致得救,这又何足为怪呢?他是上帝,我们是他所造的;他是主,我们是他的仆人;他是全世界的主宰,我们是卑微必死的世人,──虽然如此,他还要受苦!所以我们为什么不也受苦呢?尤其是当我们受苦难时,就是洁净了我们。所以亲爱的,如果我的死能为基督增光,你们就求主让死亡速速临到我,并求他在我的一切患难中用恒忍的精神支持我。但如果我回到你们中间是更有益处的话,那么我们求上帝使我回来时不带有任何罪迹,──就是说,叫我不避讳福音真理的一点一画,以便给我的弟兄留下好榜样。或许你们不能在布拉格再见我的面;但如果全能的上帝乐意叫我回到你们那里,那么我们务要以更坚固的心在认识并热爱他律法的事上向前进。”(注五)     In a letter addressed to his friends at Prague he said: "My brethren, . . . I am departing with a safe-conduct from the king to meet my numerous and mortal enemies. . . . I confide altogether in the all-powerful God, in my Saviour; I trust that He will listen to your ardent prayers, that He will infuse His prudence and His wisdom into my mouth, in order that I may resist them; and that He will accord me His Holy Spirit to fortify me in His truth, so that I may face with courage, temptations, prison, and, if necessary, a cruel death. Jesus Christ suffered for His well-beloved; and therefore ought we to be astonished that He has left us His example, in order that we may ourselves endure with patience all things for our own salvation? He is God, and we are His creatures; He is the Lord, and we are His servants; He is Master of the world, and we are contemptible mortals--yet He suffered! Why, then, should we not suffer also, particularly when suffering is for us a purification? Therefore, beloved, if my death ought to contribute to His glory, pray that it may come quickly, and that He may enable me to support all my calamities with constancy. But if it be better that I return amongst you, let us pray to God that I may return without stain--that is, that I may not suppress one tittle of the truth of the gospel, in order to leave my brethren an excellent example to follow. Probably, therefore, you will nevermore behold my face at Prague; but should the will of the all-powerful God deign to restore me to you, let us then advance with a firmer heart in the knowledge and the love of His law."--Bonnechose, vol. 1, pp. 147, 148. {GC 105.1}
     
23  胡斯又写一封信给一个悔改作福音信徒的神父。在信中胡斯谦虚地提到自己的过失,自责说:“我曾经喜爱穿华丽的衣服,并在虚浮荒唐的事上旷废时间。”随后,他补充了以下动人的劝告:“愿上帝的荣耀和罪人得救的问题充满你的思想,你不要追求名誉,地位和财产。不可装饰自己的房屋过于修养心灵;务要专心建造属灵的房屋。要以虔诚和虚心对待穷人,不可在吃喝宴乐上耗费资财。如果你不悔过而戒除虚浮的事,我怕你会受严厉的责罚,象我一样。……你很熟悉我的教训,因为你从小就受我的教育;所以我无需多写。但我凭着主的怜悯嘱咐你,不可在你见我陷入虚浮的事上效法我。”在信封上他写着:“朋友,请你不要拆开这封信,直到你确知我已经死了。”(注六)     In another letter, to a priest who had become a disciple of the gospel, Huss spoke with deep humility of his own errors, accusing himself "of having felt pleasure in wearing rich apparel and of having wasted hours in frivolous occupations." He then added these touching admonitions: "May the glory of God and the salvation of souls occupy thy mind, and not the possession of benefices and estates. Beware of adorning thy house more than thy soul; and, above all, give thy care to the spiritual edifice. Be pious and humble with the poor, and consume not thy substance in feasting. Shouldst thou not amend thy life and refrain from superfluities, I fear that thou wilt be severely chastened, as I am myself. . . . Thou knowest my doctrine, for thou hast received my instructions from thy childhood; it is therefore useless for me to write to thee any further. But I conjure thee, by the mercy of our Lord, not to imitate me in any of the vanities into which thou hast seen me fall." On the cover of the letter he added: "I conjure thee, my friend, not to break this seal until thou shalt have acquired the certitude that I am dead."--Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 148, 149. {GC 105.2}
     
24  胡斯在沿途到处都看见传播他教训的迹象,以及一般人对于他的赞助。各地人民蜂拥的来欢迎他,而且某些城镇的首长竟在街道上护送他。     On his journey, Huss everywhere beheld indications of the spread of his doctrines and the favor with which his cause was regarded. The people thronged to meet him, and in some towns the magistrates attended him through their streets. {GC 106.1}
     
25  胡斯初到康士坦司时,他享有完全的自由。除了皇帝的护照之外,教皇还向他提出保护的诺言。但过不久,这些屡次郑重提出的保证竟被破坏了。教皇和红衣主教团竟下令逮捕这位改革家,把他囚禁在可嫌厌的地窖里。后来他被关在莱茵河对岸的坚固堡垒里。不过教皇自己并不能因这不顾信义的手段而有所收获;不久他也被关在同一个牢狱里了。(注七)会议上证实他除了谋杀,贩卖圣职,和奸淫等“不堪述说的罪”之外,还犯了其他极卑鄙无耻的罪。这是会议所宣布的,于是他被免职,并被囚入狱。至于其他两个敌对的教皇,他们也被废除,会议则选了一个新的教皇。     Upon arriving at Constance, Huss was granted full liberty. To the emperor's safe-conduct was added a personal assurance of protection by the pope. But, in violation of these solemn and repeated declarations, the Reformer was in a short time arrested, by order of the pope and cardinals, and thrust into a loathsome dungeon. Later he was transferred to a strong castle across the Rhine and there kept a prisoner. The pope, profiting little by his perfidy, was soon after committed to the same prison. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 247. He had been proved before the council to be guilty of the basest crimes, besides murder, simony, and adultery, "sins not fit to be named." So the council itself declared, and he was finally deprived of the tiara and thrown into prison. The antipopes also were deposed, and a new pontiff was chosen.
     
26  前一个教皇所有的罪行虽然远比胡斯控告神父们的罪行更为卑鄙,虽然胡斯也是要求教会在这些事上进行改革,但那免了教皇职分的同一个会议转而加害于这位改革家了。胡斯之被监禁,在波希米亚引起了公愤。大有权势的贵族对此暴行向会议提出严正的抗议。当时皇帝也不认可人违犯他所发的护照,所以也反对会议对于这位改革家所采取的手段。可是胡斯的敌人心地狠毒,意志坚决,他们用种种方法引起皇帝的偏见,恐惧,和对教会的热心,他们花言巧语,强词夺理地证明“叛教徒或是有叛教行为的嫌疑犯,虽有皇帝或君王所发的护照。人也不应向他们守信。”(注八)这样,他们终于胜利了。     Though the pope himself had been guilty of greater crimes than Huss had ever charged upon the priests, and for which he had demanded a reformation, yet the same council which degraded the pontiff proceeded to crush the Reformer. The imprisonment of Huss excited great indignation in Bohemia. Powerful noblemen addressed to the council earnest protests against this outrage. The emperor, who was loath to permit the violation of a safe-conduct, opposed the proceedings against him. But the enemies of the Reformer were malignant and determined. They appealed to the emperor's prejudices, to his fears, to his zeal for the church. They brought forward arguments of great length to prove that "faith ought not to be kept with heretics, nor persons suspected of heresy, though they are furnished with safe-conducts from the emperor and kings."--Jacques Lenfant, History of the Council of Constance, vol. 1, p. 516. Thus they prevailed. {GC 107.1}
     
27  胡斯因疾病和监禁而身体衰弱了。因他所住地窖里的潮湿瘴气使他生了一场大病,几乎丧了性命。后来他又被带到议会上去了。他全身带着锁链,立在那曾经发誓保护他的皇帝面前。在那一次长久的审讯中,他稳重地坚持了真理,并在许多国家和教会的领袖面前,对教廷的腐败罪行提出了严正而忠实的抗议。及至他必须考虑取消他的言论,或者是受死刑的时候,他就决定为道殉身。     Enfeebled by illness and imprisonment,--for the damp, foul air of his dungeon had brought on a fever which nearly ended his life,--Huss was at last brought before the council. Loaded with chains he stood in the presence of the emperor, whose honor and good faith had been pledged to protect him. During his long trial he firmly maintained the truth, and in the presence of the assembled dignitaries of church and state he uttered a solemn and faithful protest against the corruptions of the hierarchy. When required to choose whether he would recant his doctrines or suffer death, he accepted the martyr's fate. {GC 107.2}
     
28  上帝的恩典支持了胡斯。在未宣判之前的几周内,上天的平安充满了他的心。他写信给朋友说:“我在牢狱里手上带着锁链写这一封信。明天大概就要宣判死刑了。……将来我们靠着耶稣基督的帮助能在来世甜美的安乐中再次会面时,你就必知道上帝曾经如何地怜悯了我,并在我的试炼和考验中用他的大能支持了我。”(注九)     The grace of God sustained him. During the weeks of suffering that passed before his final sentence, heaven's peace filled his soul. "I write this letter," he said to a friend, "in my prison, and with my fettered hand, expecting my sentence of death tomorrow. . . . When, with the assistance of Jesus Christ, we shall again meet in the delicious peace of the future life, you will learn how merciful God has shown Himself toward me, how effectually He has supported me in the midst of my temptations and trials."--Bonnechose, vol. 2, p. 67.
     
29  胡期在地窖的黑暗环境中展望到真理信仰的最后胜利。他在梦中回到他从前在布拉格讲道的会堂里,看见教皇和他的主教们在那里涂抹他在会堂墙上所画基督的像。“这一个异梦令他非常地不安;可是翌日他又看见有许多艺术家将基督的像重新画到墙上去,而且画得更多,色彩更为美丽。有很多的观众围绕着这些艺术家,及至他们画完了,便说道:‘现在让教皇和主教们来吧;他们再不能涂掉这些画像了。’”这位改革家讲述这梦以后,就作结论说:“我认为这是必然的,基督的像是永远不能抹杀的。他们要想毁掉它,但将来必有比我更能干的传道人把这像描绘在众人的心里。”(注十)     In the gloom of his dungeon he foresaw the triumph of the true faith. Returning in his dreams to the chapel at Prague where he had preached the gospel, he saw the pope and his bishops effacing the pictures of Christ which he had painted on its walls. "This vision distressed him: but on the next day he saw many painters occupied in restoring these figures in greater number and in brighter colors. As soon as their task was ended, the painters, who were surrounded by an immense crowd, exclaimed, 'Now let the popes and bishops come; they shall never efface them more!'" Said the Reformer, as he related his dream: "I maintain this for certain, that the image of Christ will never be effaced. They have wished to destroy it, but it shall be painted afresh in all hearts by much better preachers than myself."--D'Aubigne, b. 1, ch. 6. {GC 108.1}
     
30  胡斯最后一次被带到议会前,那确是一次极大而声势显赫的集会,──有皇帝,王侯,贵族的代表,红衣主教,主教,神父,和当日旁听的广大群众。从基督教世界的每一角落,都有人来观看这第一个为争取信仰自由的持久战而牺牲的勇士。     For the last time, Huss was brought before the council. It was a vast and brilliant assembly--the emperor, the princes of the empire, the royal deputies, the cardinals, bishops, and priests, and an immense crowd who had come as spectators of the events of the day. From all parts of Christendom had been gathered the witnesses of this first great sacrifice in the long struggle by which liberty of conscience was to be secured. {GC 108.2}
     
31  这次会议吩咐胡斯作最后的决定,他便表示不肯否定自己的言论,随即定睛望着那不顾羞耻违犯自己誓约的皇帝说:“我是经过在场皇帝公开的保护和诺言,而自动的出席这次议会。”(注十一)西基斯孟皇帝在众目睽睽之下,面红耳赤,羞惭万分。     Being called upon for his final decision, Huss declared his refusal to abjure, and, fixing his penetrating glance upon the monarch whose plighted word had been so shamelessly violated, he declared: "I determined, of my own free will, to appear before this council, under the public protection and faith of the emperor here present."--Bonnechose, vol. 2, p. 84. A deep flush crimsoned the face of Sigismund as the eyes of all in the assembly turned upon him. {GC 108.3}
     
32  罪状既已宣判,侮辱的方式便开始了。起先由主教们拿神父的礼服穿在囚犯身上,正穿的时候,他说:“我们的主耶稣基督被希律王送到彼拉多面前时,人用白袍给他穿上,侮辱他。”(注十二)当害他的人再度逼他收回自己言论的时候,他便面向群众说:“如果收回,我将有何面目望天呢?又怎能见那些听过我传讲纯正福音的人群呢?不,我重视他们得救的问题过于这个已经定了死刑的身体。”随后主教们将礼服一件一件地从他身上剥下来,每剥一件,就咒诅一次。最后他们“给他戴上一顶纸糊的尖帽子,在上面画着可怕的妖精鬼怪,并在前面写着‘叛教罪魁’。胡期说:‘耶稣啊,我为你的缘故戴这可耻的冠冕是极快乐的,因为你曾为我戴荆棘的冠冕。’”     Sentence having been pronounced, the ceremony of degradation began. The bishops clothed their prisoner in the sacerdotal habit, and as he took the priestly robe, he said: "Our Lord Jesus Christ was covered with a white robe, by way of insult, when Herod had Him conducted before Pilate."-- Ibid., vol. 2, p. 86. Being again exhorted to retract, he replied, turning toward the people: "With what face, then, should I behold the heavens? How should I look on those multitudes of men to whom I have preached the pure gospel? No; I esteem their salvation more than this poor body, now appointed unto death." The vestments were removed one by one, each bishop pronouncing a curse as he performed his part of the ceremony. Finally "they put on his head a cap or pyramidal-shaped miter of paper, on which were painted frightful figures of demons, with the word 'Archheretic' conspicuous in front. 'Most joyfully,' said Huss, 'will I wear this crown of shame for Thy sake, O Jesus, who for me didst wear a crown of thorns.'" {GC 108.4}
     
33  他穿戴完毕之后,“主教们便对他说:‘我们现在将你的灵魂交给魔鬼。’胡斯约翰则仰首向天说:‘主耶稣啊,我将我的灵魂交在你手里,因为你已经救赎了我。’”(注十三)     When he was thus arrayed, "the prelates said, 'Now we devote thy soul to the devil.' 'And I,' said John Huss, lifting up his eyes toward heaven, 'do commit my spirit into Thy hands, O Lord Jesus, for Thou hast redeemed me.'"--Wylie, b. 3, ch. 7. {GC 109.1}
     
34  于是他们将他交给政府当局,把他送到刑场。有无数的群众跟在后面,其中有成百的武装人员,有穿着富丽衣服的神父主教们和康士坦司的居民。及至胡斯被绑在火刑柱上即将燃火的时候,他们再度劝这位殉道者务要否定自己的谬论,以救自己的性命。他回答说:“要我否定什么谬论啊!我不知道自己讲过什么谬论。我请求上帝作见证。我所写的和所讲的完全是以抢救生灵脱离罪恶和灭亡为目的;所以我极乐意用自己的血来坚定我所写作和所传讲的真理。”当火焰在四面燃起的时候,他便开始歌唱一首诗,题目是“大卫的子孙耶稣啊,可怜我吧!”他继续歌唱,直到歌声永远停息为止。     He was now delivered up to the secular authorities and led away to the place of execution. An immense procession followed, hundreds of men at arms, priests and bishops in their costly robes, and the inhabitants of Constance. When he had been fastened to the stake, and all was ready for the fire to be lighted, the martyr was once more exhorted to save himself by renouncing his errors. "What errors," said Huss, "shall I renounce? I know myself guilty of none. I call God to witness that all that I have written and preached has been with the view of rescuing souls from sin and perdition; and, therefore, most joyfully will I confirm with my blood that truth which I have written and preached."--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 7. When the flames kindled about him, he began to sing, "Jesus, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me," and so continued till his voice was silenced forever. {GC 109.2}
     
35  连他的敌人都被他的勇敢所感动。一位热心的罗马教首领描述胡斯和以后随之殒命的耶罗米的蒙难情形说:“二人临终时都非常镇静。他们准备受火刑,好像是预备赴婚姻筵席一样。他们没有一次叫痛,当火焰上升时,他们却开始唱诗,而且烈火似乎难以止住他们的歌声。”(注十四)     Even his enemies were struck with his heroic bearing. A zealous papist, describing the martyrdom of Huss, and of Jerome, who died soon after, said: "Both bore themselves with constant mind when their last hour approached. They prepared for the fire as if they were going to a marriage feast. They uttered no cry of pain. When the flames rose, they began to sing hymns; and scarce could the vehemency of the fire stop their singing."--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 7. {GC 109.3}
     
36  胡斯的身体烧尽之后,他们便将他的骨灰连同灰下的尘土一齐抛入莱茵河中,借此送入海洋。逼迫胡斯的人妄想这样作就是将他所传的真理连根都拔去了,却没有梦想到那天所流入海洋的骨灰要象种子一样,散布到世界各国;而且将要在他们所不知道的地带结出丰盛的果子,就是许多为真理作见证的人。那天在康士坦司议会厅里发言的声音将要响到永远。胡斯固然已经不在了,可是他殉身所见证的道却永不消灭。他忠诚坚贞的榜样将要鼓励许多的人,冒着酷刑和死亡坚持真理,不让一步。他的死刑已经向全世界说明罗马教廷不守信誉的残酷,所以事实上真理的敌人却在无意之中推进了他们所想要毁灭的运动。     When the body of Huss had been wholly consumed, his ashes, with the soil upon which they rested, were gathered up and cast into the Rhine, and thus borne onward to the ocean. His persecutors vainly imagined that they had rooted out the truths he preached. Little did they dream that the ashes that day borne away to the sea were to be as seed scattered in all the countries of the earth; that in lands yet unknown it would yield abundant fruit in witnesses for the truth. The voice which had spoken in the council hall of Constance had wakened echoes that would be heard through all coming ages. Huss was no more, but the truths for which he died could never perish. His example of faith and constancy would encourage multitudes to stand firm for the truth, in the face of torture and death. His execution had exhibited to the whole world the perfidious cruelty of Rome. The enemies of truth, though they knew it not, had been furthering the cause which they vainly sought to destroy. {GC 110.1}
     
37  此后康士坦司将要再竖起一个火刑柱。另一个见证人的血必须为真理作见证。耶罗米向胡斯辞别的时候曾勉励他务要刚强坚稳,并说,如果胡斯遇到危险,他必定亲自赶去相助。所以这位忠实的门徒,一听到这位改革家被监禁,就立即准备履行他的诺言。他没有得到通行护照,只带着一个人为旅伴,便向康士坦司出发了。他一到那里,就发觉自己不能作一点有助于营救胡斯的事,只是徒然危险而已,于是他逃出了那地方,但中途被逮捕了,并加上锁链,由一队兵士押到康士坦司。在他第一次站在议会想对控告他的人为自己辩护时,会众喊叫说:“把他烧死,把他烧死!”(注十五)他们将他关在牢狱里,用锁链把他锁住,使他保持一种不自然的姿势,使他受非常的痛苦;他所吃的只是面包和清水。过了几个月,耶罗米因监禁的痛苦,以致病得很重,几乎丧命;他的仇敌恐怕他死去,就减轻了他的痛苦,此后他继续被监禁达一年之久。     Yet another stake was to be set up at Constance. The blood of another witness must testify for the truth. Jerome, upon bidding farewell to Huss on his departure for the council, had exhorted him to courage and firmness, declaring that if he should fall into any peril, he himself would fly to his assistance. Upon hearing of the Reformer's imprisonment, the faithful disciple immediately prepared to fulfill his promise. Without a safe-conduct he set out, with a single companion, for Constance. On arriving there he was convinced that he had only exposed himself to peril, without the possibility of doing anything for the deliverance of Huss. He fled from the city, but was arrested on the homeward journey and brought back loaded with fetters and under the custody of a band of soldiers. At his first appearance before the council his attempts to reply to the accusations brought against him were met with shouts, "To the flames with him! to the flames!"--Bonnechose, vol. 1, p. 234. He was thrown into a dungeon, chained in a position which caused him great suffering, and fed on bread and water. After some months the cruelties of his imprisonment brought upon Jerome an illness that threatened his life, and his enemies, fearing that he might escape them, treated him with less severity, though he remained in prison for one year. {GC 110.2}
     
38  胡斯殉道的结果,并不如罗马教会所希冀的一样。皇帝所发护照的被破坏引起了普遍的公愤,于是议会定意不焚烧耶罗米,而尽力设法使他放弃自己的信仰。他们把他带到会场上,吩咐他放弃他的信仰,否则必受死刑。其实鉴于他所已经受的痛苦,如果在他初被监禁时就治死他,倒是善待他了;如今衰弱的病体,监牢里的严酷,以及焦虑和悬念的摧残,又因与朋友的隔离,再想起胡期的死亡,他灰心极了。他一时向议会屈服,表示愿意依从议会的决定。他起誓顺服罗马教的信条,并接受议会罪责威克里夫和胡斯之教义的议案,只是声明对他们所讲的“神圣真理”仍然相信。(注十六)     The death of Huss had not resulted as the papists had hoped. The violation of his safe-conduct had roused a storm of indignation, and as the safer course, the council determined, instead of burning Jerome, to force him, if possible, to retract. He was brought before the assembly, and offered the alternative to recant, or to die at the stake. Death at the beginning of his imprisonment would have been a mercy in comparison with the terrible sufferings which he had undergone; but now, weakened by illness, by the rigors of his prison house, and the torture of anxiety and suspense, separated from his friends, and disheartened by the death of Huss, Jerome's fortitude gave way, and he consented to submit to the council. He pledged himself to adhere to the Catholic faith, and accepted the action of the council in condemning the doctrines of Wycliffe and Huss, excepting, however, the "holy truths" which they had taught.--Ibid, vol. 2, p. 141. {GC 111.1}
     
39  耶罗米想用这种权宜之计抑制良心的责备,苟存性命,可是在他回到寂寞的牢狱之后,他便更清楚地认识到自己作为的真相。他想起胡斯的勇敢和忠诚,再考虑到自己如何否认了真理;他也想起自己起誓要服事的主,如何为他的缘故忍受了十字架的死。在他屈服之前他身体虽受痛苦,但精神上仍因确知得蒙上帝的喜悦而有安慰;如今悔恨和怀疑使他精神上非常痛苦了。他也知道,如果与罗马教廷妥协到底,他势必作更多的让步。他所已经走上的路结果必是完全的叛道。于是他下了决心,再不为苟免暂时的痛苦而否认他的主。     By this expedient Jerome endeavored to silence the voice of conscience and escape his doom. But in the solitude of his dungeon he saw more clearly what he had done. He thought of the courage and fidelity of Huss, and in contrast pondered upon his own denial of the truth. He thought of the divine Master whom he had pledged himself to serve, and who for his sake endured the death of the cross. Before his retraction he had found comfort, amid all his sufferings, in the assurance of God's favor; but now remorse and doubts tortured his soul. He knew that still other retractions must be made before he could be at peace with Rome. The path upon which he was entering could end only in complete apostasy. His resolution was taken: To escape a brief period of suffering he would not deny his Lord. {GC 111.2}
     
40  不久他又被带到议会前。他第一次的屈服未能使审问他的人满意。他们嗜杀的心因胡斯的死而受了鼓舞,非得新的对象以逞其欲不可。耶罗米若想苟全性命,就必须毫不保留地放弃真理。可是他已经决心辨明自己的信仰,并跟随他殉道的弟兄到火刑场去。  这次耶罗米否定了他第一次的反悔,并以临死者的身份要求有机会为自己辩护。主教们恐怕他的话发生太大的影响,就限定他对控告的罪状或承认或否认。耶罗米就向这种残酷和不公正的待遇提出抗议说:“你们把我关禁在污秽,肮脏,臭恶可怕的牢狱中,也不给我一样需用的东西,已有三百四十天了;然后你们才把我带出来,并依着我仇敌的意思,不肯听我为自己辩护。……如果你们真是智慧人,又是世界的光,那么务要谨慎,免得你们违背正义。至于我本身,只不过是一个软弱而必死的人;我的性命无关紧要;我现在劝你们不可下不公正的判决,还是为了你们,而不是为自己着想。”(注十七)     Soon he was again brought before the council. His submission had not satisfied his judges. Their thirst for blood, whetted by the death of Huss, clamored for fresh victims. Only by an unreserved surrender of the truth could Jerome preserve his life. But he had determined to avow his faith and follow his brother martyr to the flames. {GC 112.1}
     
41  这次耶罗米否定了他第一次的反悔,并以临死者的身份要求有机会为自己辩护。主教们恐怕他的话发生太大的影响,就限定他对控告的罪状或承认或否认。耶罗米就向这种残酷和不公正的待遇提出抗议说:“你们把我关禁在污秽,肮脏,臭恶可怕的牢狱中,也不给我一样需用的东西,已有三百四十天了;然后你们才把我带出来,并依着我仇敌的意思,不肯听我为自己辩护。……如果你们真是智慧人,又是世界的光,那么务要谨慎,免得你们违背正义。至于我本身,只不过是一个软弱而必死的人;我的性命无关紧要;我现在劝你们不可下不公正的判决,还是为了你们,而不是为自己着想。”(注十七)     He renounced his former recantation and, as a dying man, solemnly required an opportunity to make his defense. Fearing the effect of his words, the prelates insisted that he should merely affirm or deny the truth of the charges brought against him. Jerome protested against such cruelty and injustice. "You have held me shut up three hundred and forty days in a frightful prison," he said, "in the midst of filth, noisomeness, stench, and the utmost want of everything; you then bring me out before you, and lending an ear to my mortal enemies, you refuse to hear me. . . . If you be really wise men, and the lights of the world, take care not to sin against justice. As to me, I am only a feeble mortal; my life is but of little importance; and when I exhort you not to deliver an unjust sentence, I speak less for myself than for you."--Ibid., vol. 2, pp. 146, 147. {GC 112.2}
     
42  大会终于准了耶罗米的要求。于是他当着众人跪下祈祷,求圣灵指引他的思想和言语,叫他不要说什么与真理相背或不与救主相称的话。上帝向早期的门徒所发的应许那天实现在耶罗米身上了。那应许说:“你们要为我的缘故被送到诸侯君王面前,……你们被交的时候,不要思虑怎样说话,或说什么话。到那时候,必赐给你们当说的话。因为不是你们自己说的,乃是你们父的灵在你们里头说的。”(太10:18-20)     His request was finally granted. In the presence of his judges, Jerome kneeled down and prayed that the divine Spirit might control his thoughts and words, that he might speak nothing contrary to the truth or unworthy of his Master. To him that day was fulfilled the promise of God to the first disciples: "Ye shall be brought before governors and kings for My sake. . . . But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you." Matthew 10:18-20. {GC 112.3}
     
43  结果耶罗米的话引起了普遍的惊异和感佩,连他的仇敌也不得不希奇。因为他被囚在地窖里已有一年之久,非但不能看书,就是什么东西也都看不见,同时他不断地受肉体上的痛苦和思想方面的焦虑。但这次他所提出的理由是那么清晰而有力,好像是他在牢狱中有过良好的机会进行研究的一样。他使听众想起古时被不公正的法官所定为有罪的许多义人。几乎每一代都有一些人存心要为同胞造福,却被众人所诬告,所唾弃,但过了许久才发现这些人是配得尊敬的。连基督耶稣也曾被不公正的议会判为犯法者。     The words of Jerome excited astonishment and admiration, even in his enemies. For a whole year he had been immured in a dungeon, unable to read or even to see, in great physical suffering and mental anxiety. Yet his arguments were presented with as much clearness and power as if he had had undisturbed opportunity for study. He pointed his hearers to the long line of holy men who had been condemned by unjust judges. In almost every generation have been those who, while seeking to elevate the people of their time, have been reproached and cast out, but who in later times have been shown to be deserving of honor. Christ Himself was condemned as a malefactor at an unrighteous tribunal. {GC 112.4}
     
44  耶罗米前次反悔时,曾赞同那定胡斯为有罪的判决;但现在他声明懊悔了,并为胡斯的无罪和圣洁作了见证。他说道:“我从小就认识他,他是一位最善良的君子,又公道,又纯洁;他虽然无罪,却仍被定罪。……如今我也准备要死,我决不因我敌人和作假见证之人所准备加在我身上的痛苦而畏缩;有一天,他们终要为他们欺骗的行为向那不能受欺骗的上帝交代。”(注十八)     At his retraction, Jerome had assented to the justice of the sentence condemning Huss; he now declared his repentance and bore witness to the innocence and holiness of the martyr. "I knew him from his childhood," he said. "He was a most excellent man, just and holy; he was condemned, notwithstanding his innocence. . . . I also--I am ready to die: I will not recoil before the torments that are prepared for me by my enemies and false witnesses, who will one day have to render an account of their impostures before the great God, whom nothing can deceive."--Bonnechose, vol. 2, p. 151. {GC 113.1}
     
45  耶罗米又为他自己一度否认真理的罪行痛恨自责说:“我从少年直到如今,所犯的罪行中,没有一样象我在这里赞同你们惩办威克里夫,和我的良师益友胡斯的案件上所犯的罪,使我更加悔恨。是的,我从心中认罪,并痛悔当初因怕死而可耻地畏缩,并否定了他们的教义。所以我现在恳求……全能的上帝饶恕我一切的罪,特别是这一个最可恶的罪。”于是耶罗米指着审判他的法官肯定地说:“你们定了威克里夫和胡期约翰的罪,不是因为他们破坏了教会的教义,乃是因为他们谴责了僧侣们许多不名誉的事──他们的奢侈和骄傲,以及主教和神父们的一切罪行。威克里夫和胡斯二人所传讲的事实是无可驳斥的,所以我同他们一样相信,并宣明这些事实。”     In self-reproach for his own denial of the truth, Jerome continued: "Of all the sins that I have committed since my youth, none weigh so heavily on my mind, and cause me such poignant remorse, as that which I committed in this fatal place, when I approved of the iniquitous sentence rendered against Wycliffe, and against the holy martyr, John Huss, my master and my friend. Yes! I confess it from my heart, and declare with horror that I disgracefully quailed when, through a dread of death, I condemned their doctrines. I therefore supplicate . . . Almighty God to deign to pardon me my sins, and this one in particular, the most heinous of all." Pointing to his judges, he said firmly: "You condemned Wycliffe and John Huss, not for having shaken the doctrine of the church, but simply because they branded with reprobation the scandals proceeding from the clergy--their pomp, their pride, and all the vices of the prelates and priests. The things which they have affirmed, and which are irrefutable, I also think and declare, like them." {GC 113.2}

 

     
46  讲到这里,耶罗米的话被人打断了。主教们大为震怒,喊叫说:“我们还需要什么证据呢?大家亲眼看明他是最顽固的叛教徒!”     His words were interrupted. The prelates, trembling with rage, cried out: "What need is there of further proof? We behold with our own eyes the most obstinate of heretics!" {GC 114.1}

 

     
47  耶罗米很坚定地说:“什么!你们以为我怕死么?你们把我关在比死还可怕的地窖已有一年之久。你们对待我比对待土耳其人,犹太人,或化外人,更加惨无人道,以致我的皮肉竟活活地腐烂了;虽然如此,我不怨天尤人,因为大丈夫没有为自己哀哭的;但我不得不因你们这样野蛮地虐待一个基督徒而惊奇。”(注十九)     Unmoved by the tempest, Jerome exclaimed: "What! do you suppose that I fear to die? You have held me for a whole year in a frightful dungeon, more horrible than death itself. You have treated me more cruelly than a Turk, Jew, or pagan, and my flesh has literally rotted off my bones alive; and yet I make no complaint, for lamentation ill becomes a man of heart and spirit; but I cannot but express my astonishment at such great barbarity toward a Christian."--Ibid., vol. 2, pp. 151-153. {GC 114.2}

 

     
48  说到这里,会场上又爆发了一阵狂怒,他们就把耶罗米匆匆地带回到牢狱里去了。但会场中有一些人因耶罗米的话受了深刻的印象,所以他们想设法营救他。于是教会的权贵们去探访他,劝他务要服从议会。他们向他提出最动心的利诱,来奖励他放弃反对罗马教的立场。但耶罗米像他的主一样,在以全世界的荣华富贵诱惑他的时候,依然坚立不动。     Again the storm of rage burst out, and Jerome was hurried away to prison. Yet there were some in the assembly upon whom his words had made a deep impression and who desired to save his life. He was visited by dignitaries of the church and urged to submit himself to the council. The most brilliant prospects were presented before him as the reward of renouncing his opposition to Rome. But like his Master when offered the glory of the world, Jerome remained steadfast. {GC 114.3}

 

     
49  他说:“你们用《圣经》的话证明我有错,我就一定放弃这错误。”     "Prove to me from the Holy Writings that I am in error," he said, "and I will abjure it." {GC 114.4}

 

     
50  诱惑他的人回答说:“《圣经》,难道一切的问题都用《圣经》来批判么?若不是先经教会来解释《圣经》,谁能明白其中的话呢?”     "The Holy Writings!" exclaimed one of his tempters, "is everything then to be judged by them? Who can understand them till the church has interpreted them?" {GC 114.5}

 

     
51  耶罗米回答说:“难道人的遗传比我们救主的福音更加可信么?连保罗都没有叫读他书信的人去听从人的遗传,却劝人考查《圣经》。”     "Are the traditions of men more worthy of faith than the gospel of our Saviour?" replied Jerome. "Paul did not exhort those to whom he wrote to listen to the traditions of men, but said, 'Search the Scriptures.'" {GC 114.6}

 

     
52  于是那人回答他说:“叛教徒,我后悔用这么多的工夫来劝你。我看你是受了魔鬼的怂恿。”(注二十)     "Heretic!" was the response, "I repent having pleaded so long with you. I see that you are urged on by the devil."-- Wylie, b. 3, ch. 10. {GC 114.7}

 

     
53  不久,死刑判决了,他们把他带到先前胡斯受刑的地方。他走向刑场的时候,一路歌唱着,脸上发出喜乐和平安的光彩;他仰望着基督,所以死亡在他身上已失去了恐怖的力量。及至执行死刑的人到他背后去燃点柴薪的时候,耶罗米喊叫说:“到前面来吧!当着我面把火点起来。假使我惧怕的话,我早就不会到这里来了。”     Erelong sentence of condemnation was passed upon him. He was led out to the same spot upon which Huss had yielded up his life. He went singing on his way, his countenance lighted up with joy and peace. His gaze was fixed upon Christ, and to him death had lost its terrors. When the executioner, about to kindle the pile, stepped behind him, the martyr exclaimed: "Come forward boldly; apply the fire before my face. Had I been afraid, I should not be here." {GC 114.8}

 

     
54  他最后的几句话就是在火焰烧起来的时候的祈祷:“主全能的父啊,可怜我,饶恕我的罪吧!你知道我一直是热爱你的真理的。”(注二一)于是他的声音止息了,但他的嘴唇继续默祷。及至焚烬,他们便象对待胡期一样,将耶罗米的骨灰和灰下的尘土收拾起来,丢在莱茵河里。     His last words, uttered as the flames rose about him, were a prayer. "Lord, Almighty Father," he cried, "have pity on me, and pardon me my sins; for Thou knowest that I have always loved Thy truth."--Bonnechose, vol. 2, p. 168. His voice ceased, but his lips continued to move in prayer. When the fire had done its work, the ashes of the martyr, with the earth upon which they rested, were gathered up, and like those of Huss, were thrown into the Rhine. {GC 115.1}

 

     
55  上帝的两位忠心擎光者就这样牺牲了。可是他们所宣讲的真理光辉是永远存在的,他们英雄的典范必永垂不朽。人想阻止那正在破晓的新纪元,还不如设法叫太阳倒退一度呢!     So perished God's faithful light bearers. But the light of the truths which they proclaimed--the light of their heroic example--could not be extinguished. As well might men attempt to turn back the sun in its course as to prevent the dawning of that day which was even then breaking upon the world. {GC 115.2}

 

     
56  胡斯的殉难在波希米亚全境引起普遍的愤慨和惊异。全国的人民都认为他是因神父们的阴毒和皇帝的奸诈而牺牲的,他们公认他是真理的忠心教师,并控告害死他的议会犯了杀人的罪。于是胡斯的教训比从前更引起了许多人的注意。威克里夫的作品早已因教皇的命令而被焚烧了;但还有一些幸免于毁灭的作品,则被人从秘藏的地方取出来与《圣经》一同研究,许多人只有《圣经》的一小部分,但也接受了这改正教的信仰。     The execution of Huss had kindled a flame of indignation and horror in Bohemia. It was felt by the whole nation that he had fallen a prey to the malice of the priests and the treachery of the emperor. He was declared to have been a faithful teacher of the truth, and the council that decreed his death was charged with the guilt of murder. His doctrines now attracted greater attention than ever before. By the papal edicts the writings of Wycliffe had been condemned to the flames. But those that had escaped destruction were now brought out from their hiding places and studied in connection with the Bible, or such parts of it as the people could obtain, and many were thus led to accept the reformed faith. {GC 115.3}

 

     
57  谋害胡斯的人并没有坐视他工作的胜利。教皇和皇帝同心合力地下手要消灭这运动,于是西基斯孟的军队向波希米亚进攻了     The murderers of Huss did not stand quietly by and witness the triumph of his cause. The pope and the emperor united to crush out the movement, and the armies of Sigismund were hurled upon Bohemia.

 

     
58  但上帝兴起了一个救星。席斯加是当时最英明的将领,虽在战争开始之后便双目失明,但依然能率领波希米亚人作战。他们笃信自己的立场是正义的,必蒙上帝的帮助,所以屡次抵御最强大的敌军。皇帝多次失败,屡次重整旗鼓,卷土重来,但每次都狼狈败退。波希米亚的军队──俗称“胡斯军”──作战奋不顾身,视死如归,无人能敌。但战争开始之后不多年,勇敢的席斯加死了,起而代之的是卜罗可庇。他的勇敢和干练不亚于席斯加,而且在领导上表现得比席斯加才力更高。     But a deliverer was raised up. Ziska, who soon after the opening of the war became totally blind, yet who was one of the ablest generals of his age, was the leader of the Bohemians. Trusting in the help of God and the righteousness of their cause, that people withstood the mightiest armies that could be brought against them. Again and again the emperor, raising fresh armies, invaded Bohemia, only to be ignominiously repulsed. The Hussites were raised above the fear of death, and nothing could stand against them. A few years after the opening of the war, the brave Ziska died; but his place was filled by Procopius, who was an equally brave and skillful general, and in some respects a more able leader. {GC 116.1}

 

     
59  敌军既知盲战士死了,就认为这是一个挽回过去失败的良机。于是教皇宣布一次反胡斯派的十字军大战役,有一支新的大军来进袭波希米亚,但结果又是惨败。此后又发动一次十字军;他在所统治的国家中征集大量的军火,军饷,和兵力。成群的人蜂拥到教皇的旗帜之下,确信胡斯派的叛徒这次难免于消灭了。于是这支浩浩荡荡的大军怀着必胜的信心越过波希米亚的边界。民众起而抵抗。两军终于相遇了。一天,两军只有一水相隔。“十字军阵营的兵力远为强盛,但他们并没有渡河与对方交锋,却目瞪口呆地立在河边观望着对岸的胡斯军。”(注二二)这时十字军中突然呈现一种奇特的恐怖状态。他们没有攻打,就开始瓦解四散了,似乎是被一种看不见的势力所驱散。于是胡斯军起来追击,杀戮了许多敌人,掳来大批物资,结果这次战役非但没有使波希米亚人受到丝毫损失,反而增添了他们的财富。     The enemies of the Bohemians, knowing that the blind warrior was dead, deemed the opportunity favorable for recovering all that they had lost. The pope now proclaimed a crusade against the Hussites, and again an immense force was precipitated upon Bohemia, but only to suffer terrible defeat. Another crusade was proclaimed. In all the papal countries of Europe, men, money, and munitions of war were raised. Multitudes flocked to the papal standard, assured that at last an end would be made of the Hussite heretics. Confident of victory, the vast force entered Bohemia. The people rallied to repel them. The two armies approached each other until only a river lay between them. "The crusaders were in greatly superior force, but instead of dashing across the stream, and closing in battle with the Hussites whom they had come so far to meet, they stood gazing in silence at those warriors."--Wylie, b. 3, ch. 17. Then suddenly a mysterious terror fell upon the host. Without striking a blow, that mighty force broke and scattered as if dispelled by an unseen power. Great numbers were slaughtered by the Hussite army, which pursued the fugitives, and an immense booty fell into the hands of the victors, so that the war, instead of impoverishing, enriched the Bohemians. {GC 116.2}

 

     
60  过了几年,在新的教皇领导之下,又一次的十字军战役动员起来了。象前一次一样,兵力和财力是由教廷所统治的欧洲各国供给的。所提供的利诱最足以使人动心。凡参加这次战役的人,不论其罪状多么严重,必蒙全然宽赦。凡在这次战役中丧命的,必能立即升天享受丰厚的赏赐,而那些幸免于死的人,则必在战场上获得光荣与财富。于是又一次大军征集齐备越过疆界,侵入波希米亚境内。这次胡斯军在他们面前撤退,引他们深入境内,使之以为胜利已经属于他们了。最后,卜罗可庇的军队扎住,并向敌人正式反击了。十字军这时才发觉自己的错误,便守在自己的营盘里等待应战。及至他们听见胡斯军进军的声音,但还没有看见他们的时候,十字军的阵营已起了恐慌。王侯,将领,和士兵们,都弃甲曳兵,狼狈而逃。当时率领大军的是教皇的代表,他试图下令重整旗鼓,但大势已去,无可挽回。纵使他尽到最大的努力,他自己最后也不得不随着士兵逃亡。于是十字军一败涂地;而且又一批掠物落到胜利者的手中。     A few years later, under a new pope, still another crusade was set on foot. As before, men and means were drawn from all the papal countries of Europe. Great were the inducements held out to those who should engage in this perilous enterprise. Full forgiveness of the most heinous crimes was ensured to every crusader. All who died in the war were promised a rich reward in heaven, and those who survived were to reap honor and riches on the field of battle. Again a vast army was collected, and, crossing the frontier they entered Bohemia. The Hussite forces fell back before them, thus drawing the invaders farther and farther into the country, and leading them to count the victory already won. At last the army of Procopius made a stand, and turning upon the foe, advanced to give them battle. The crusaders, now discovering their mistake, lay in their encampment awaiting the onset. As the sound of the approaching force was heard, even before the Hussites were in sight, a panic again fell upon the crusaders. Princes, generals, and common soldiers, casting away their armor, fled in all directions. In vain the papal legate, who was the leader of the invasion, endeavored to rally his terrified and disorganized forces. Despite his utmost endeavors, he himself was swept along in the tide of fugitives. The rout was complete, and again an immense booty fell into the hands of the victors. {GC 116.3}

 

     
61  这样一来,由欧洲最强盛的国家所派遣雄伟的大军,包括成万勇敢并且受过训练的武装部队,竟在这一弱小国家的守卫军面前,又一次不战而败了。这实在是上帝能力的表显。侵略军为一种超自然的恐怖所震动。那使法老的全军在红海倾覆;使米甸的大军在基甸和他的三百精兵面前奔逃,并在一夜之间击溃高傲的亚述王的上帝,这时再次伸手摧毁压迫者的势力。“他们在无可惧怕之处,就大大害怕,因为上帝把那安营攻击你之人的骨头散开了。你使他们蒙羞,因为上帝弃绝了他们。”(诗53:5)     Thus the second time a vast army, sent forth by the most powerful nations of Europe, a host of brave, warlike men, trained and equipped for battle, fled without a blow before the defenders of a small and hitherto feeble nation. Here was a manifestation of divine power. The invaders were smitten with a supernatural terror. He who overthrew the hosts of Pharaoh in the Red Sea, who put to flight the armies of Midian before Gideon and his three hundred, who in one night laid low the forces of the proud Assyrian, had again stretched out His hand to wither the power of the oppressor. "There were they in great fear, where no fear was: for God hath scattered the bones of him that encampeth against thee: thou hast put them to shame, because God hath despised them." Psalm 53:5.

 

     
62  罗马教廷的首脑们,既见武力不能成功,便采用狡计了。结果双方进行妥协,在表面上波希米亚人可以享受宗教自由,但在实际上这次妥协却把他们出卖给罗马教了。起先波希米亚曾提出四个和平的条件:自由宣讲《圣经》;在举行圣餐时,全体信徒有权力领受杯和饼,并在礼拜时用通行的方言;担任圣职的人不得兼任政治职务;遇有刑事案件,担任圣职的人应与庶民同受法院的裁判。罗马教廷最后“同意接受胡斯派的四个条件,但同时声明解释这些条件的权力却归于议会──就是教皇和皇帝。”(注二三)双方根据这四个条件签订了和约,于是罗马教用强权所不能获取的,终于借虚伪和欺蒙的手段得到了;因为她能照她解释《圣经》的一贯作风去按自己的心意解释和约的条款,并任意歪曲来达到自己的目的。     The papal leaders, despairing of conquering by force, at last resorted to diplomacy. A compromise was entered into, that while professing to grant to the Bohemians freedom of conscience, really betrayed them into the power of Rome. The Bohemians had specified four points as the condition of peace with Rome: the free preaching of the Bible; the right of the whole church to both the bread and the wine in the communion, and the use of the mother tongue in divine worship; the exclusion of the clergy from all secular offices and authority; and, in cases of crime, the jurisdiction of the civil courts over clergy and laity alike. The papal authorities at last "agreed that the four articles of the Hussites should be accepted, but that the right of explaining them, that is, of determining their precise import, should belong to the council--in other words, to the pope and the emperor."-- Wylie, b. 3, ch. 18. On this basis a treaty was entered into, and Rome gained by dissimulation and fraud what she had failed to gain by conflict; for, placing her own interpretation upon the Hussite articles, as upon the Bible, she could pervert their meaning to suit her own purposes. {GC 118.1}

 

     
63  波希米亚国内有许多的人看明这和约实际上出卖了他们的自由,就不能赞同。于是他们内部起了争执和分裂,甚至发生杀人流血的事。在这次内乱中,英雄的卜罗可庇牺牲了,于是波希米亚的自由也就此断送了。     A large class in Bohemia, seeing that it betrayed their liberties, could not consent to the compact. Dissensions and divisions arose, leading to strife and bloodshed among themselves. In this strife the noble Procopius fell, and the liberties of Bohemia perished. {GC 118.2}

 

     
64  出卖胡期和耶罗米的西基斯孟皇帝作了波希米亚王,他不顾自己发誓保护波希米亚人自由权的诺言,却进行恢复教皇的势力。其实他如此效忠罗马,对自己并没有什么收获。他过了二十年辛劳艰危的生活,由于长期无谓的战争,他的兵力耗损殆尽了;他的国库也取用一空;在他作了波希米亚王仅仅一年之后,他便与世长辞,并留下一个岌岌可危,内战将起的国家,和一个遗臭万年的骂名。     Sigismund, the betrayer of Huss and Jerome, now became king of Bohemia, and regardless of his oath to support the rights of the Bohemians, he proceeded to establish popery. But he had gained little by his subservience to Rome. For twenty years his life had been filled with labors and perils. His armies had been wasted and his treasuries drained by a long and fruitless struggle; and now, after reigning one year, he died, leaving his kingdom on the brink of civil war, and bequeathing to posterity a name branded with infamy. {GC 118.3}

 

     
65  骚动,纷争,和流血的事相继发生。外国的军队再度侵入了波希米亚的境界,而国内的分裂状态继续扰乱全境。凡忠心信服福音的人都遭到血腥的逼迫。     Tumults, strife, and bloodshed were protracted. Again foreign armies invaded Bohemia, and internal dissension continued to distract the nation. Those who remained faithful to the gospel were subjected to a bloody persecution. {GC 118.4}

 

     
66  有一些信徒在与罗马教廷订立和约之后,便信从了它的错谬道理,但那些固守真道的人却团结在一起,并组成一个独立的教会,定名为“弟兄联盟”。他们为此受到各界的咒骂,但他们仍坚定不移。他们被迫退到森林和山洞里去避难,但仍聚集诵读《圣经》,并一同敬拜。     As their former brethren, entering into compact with Rome, imbibed her errors, those who adhered to the ancient faith had formed themselves into a distinct church, taking the name of "United Brethren." This act drew upon them maledictions from all classes. Yet their firmness was unshaken. Forced to find refuge in the woods and caves, they still assembled to read God's word and unite in His worship. {GC 119.1}

 

     
67  他们秘密地派遣使者到各国去,借知“到处有孤立的真理教徒,这一城几个,那一城几个,而且这些都是众人逼迫的对象;他们也得到消息,在阿尔卑斯山中有一个古老的教会,以《圣经》为信仰的基础,并抗议罗马拜偶像的种种腐败现象。”他们听得这个消息大为欣喜,于是就开始与瓦典西的信徒取得联络。     Through messengers secretly sent out into different countries, they learned that here and there were "isolated confessors of the truth, a few in this city and a few in that, the object, like themselves, of persecution; and that amid the mountains of the Alps was an ancient church, resting on the foundations of Scripture, and protesting against the idolatrous corruptions of Rome."--Wylie, b. 3, ch. 19. This intelligence was received with great joy, and a correspondence was opened with the Waldensian Christians. {GC 119.2}

 

     
68  波希米亚的圣徒坚守着福音,忍耐地度过逼迫的黑暗,就是在最黑暗的时候,他们的眼目展望到将来,如同守夜的等候天亮。“他们生在邪恶的时代中,但……他们没有忘记胡斯的话,后来又为耶罗米所重述,就是天亮之前必须再等一百年。胡斯派的信徒,对于这句预言的重视,有如古时在埃及地被奴役的以色列人重视约瑟的遗嘱:‘我要死了,但上帝必定看顾你们,领你们从这地上去。’”(注二四)“十五世纪末叶,弟兄派的教会逐渐增多。他们虽然常受磨难,但比较起来还算平安。及至十六世纪初叶,他们在波希米亚和莫拉维亚所成立的教会单位共有二百之多。”(注二五)“可见那能幸免于火柱和刀剑之害的余民不在少数,他们终于看到胡斯所预言的新时代的破晓。”(注二六)     Steadfast to the gospel, the Bohemians waited through the night of their persecution, in the darkest hour still turning their eyes toward the horizon like men who watch for the morning. "Their lot was cast in evil days, but . . . they remembered the words first uttered by Huss, and repeated by Jerome, that a century must revolve before the day should break. These were to the Taborites [Hussites] what the words of Joseph were to the tribes in the house of bondage: `I die, and God will surely visit you, and bring you out.'"-- Ibid., b. 3, ch. 19. "The closing period of the fifteenth century witnessed the slow but sure increase of the churches of the Brethren. Although far from being unmolested, they yet enjoyed comparative rest. At the commencement of the sixteenth century their churches numbered two hundred in Bohemia and Moravia."--Ezra Hall Gillett, Life and Times of John Huss, vol. 2, p. 570. "So goodly was the remnant which, escaping the destructive fury of fire and sword, was permitted to see the dawning of that day which Huss had foretold."--Wylie, b. 3, ch. 19. {GC 119.3}

 

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* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
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我们教会正学习这本书
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* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037