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善恶之争

第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录

 

徘徊歧路的路德马丁     Luther's Separation From Rome
     
01  在一切蒙召引领教会脱离教皇制度的黑暗而走向更纯洁之信仰的人中,路德马丁是站在最前列的。他是一个火热,殷切,忠实的人,除了上帝之外,他别无畏惧;除了《圣经》之外,他不承认任何其他标准为宗教信仰的基础。路德确是当时代所需要的人物;借着他,上帝在改革教会和光照世界的事上,成就了一番伟大的工作。     Foremost among those who were called to lead the church from the darkness of popery into the light of a purer faith, stood Martin Luther. Zealous, ardent, and devoted, knowing no fear but the fear of God, and acknowledging no foundation for religious faith but the Holy Scriptures, Luther was the man for his time; through him God accomplished a great work for the reformation of the church and the enlightenment of the world. {GC 120.1}
     
02  路德象其他的福音先锋一样,出身是穷苦的。他的童年是在德国一个平凡的乡民家里度过的。他的父亲每日在矿穴里作苦工,借以供给路德的教育费。父亲原要他作一个律师;但上帝的旨意是要使他成为一个建筑师,为他建造一座圣殿,这殿要经过多少世纪的建造才能完成。艰苦,穷困和严格的锻炼,乃是那无穷智慧的主为路德所预备的学校,这一切将要给他一种必要的准备,使他能胜任一生的使命。     Like the first heralds of the gospel, Luther sprang from the ranks of poverty. His early years were spent in the humble home of a German peasant. By daily toil as a miner his father earned the means for his education. He intended him for a lawyer; but God purposed to make him a builder in the great temple that was rising so slowly through the centuries. Hardship, privation, and severe discipline were the school in which Infinite Wisdom prepared Luther for the important mission of his life. {GC 120.2}
     
03  路德的父亲有坚强而活泼的心志,雄伟的魄力,和诚实,果断,豪爽的天性。他只知忠于人生的本分,从来不考虑后果如何。他那高超的见识使他不信任当时代的修道院制度,所以当路德没有得到父亲同意而进入修道院时,他父亲就大大不悦;两年之后,父子间的感情方得恢复,但他父亲的意见并没有改变。     Luther's father was a man of strong and active mind and great force of character, honest, resolute, and straightforward. He was true to his convictions of duty, let the consequences be what they might. His sterling good sense led him to regard the monastic system with distrust. He was highly displeased when Luther, without his consent, entered a monastery; and it was two years before the father was reconciled to his son, and even then his opinions remained the same.
     
04  路德的父母对儿女的教育和训练是很关心的。他们总设法教训儿女关于认识上帝的知识和基督徒道德的实践。他时常听见父亲为他祈祷,要他记念主的名,并帮助推进他的真理。父母殷切地利用他们辛劳生活所能给他们的一点机会,来追求道德和文化方面的造就。他们认真而恒切地准备他们的儿女过一种虔诚而有用的生活。他们的坚忍和毅力有时会使他们过于严格;这位改革家自己虽然感觉父母在某些方面是作错了,但他认为在他们管教儿女的方法上,优点总比缺点多。     Luther's parents bestowed great care upon the education and training of their children. They endeavored to instruct them in the knowledge of God and the practice of Christian virtues. The father's prayer often ascended in the hearing of his son that the child might remember the name of the Lord and one day aid in the advancement of His truth. Every advantage for moral or intellectual culture which their life of toil permitted them to enjoy was eagerly improved by these parents. Their efforts were earnest and persevering to prepare their children for a life of piety and usefulness. With their firmness and strength of character they sometimes exercised too great severity; but the Reformer himself, though conscious that in some respects they had erred, found in their discipline more to approve than to condemn. {GC 121.1}
     
05  路德年纪很小就上学了,他在学校里屡受虐待,甚至挨打。那时他的父母非常穷困,甚至他从家里走到邻近的村镇去上学的时候,有一度必须挨家唱歌讨一口饭吃,并且还要时常挨饿。再者,当时宗教界所流行的迷信观念使他心中充满恐惧。他往往在夜间心情沉重地睡下去,战战兢兢地眺望着黑暗的将来。他没有认明上帝是一位慈爱的天父,只晓得他是一个严厉,无情的审判者,一个残酷的暴君,因而恐怖不已。     At school, where he was sent at an early age, Luther was treated with harshness and even violence. So great was the poverty of his parents that upon going from home to school in another town he was for a time obliged to obtain his food by singing from door to door, and he often suffered from hunger. The gloomy, superstitious ideas of religion then prevailing filled him with fear. He would lie down at night with a sorrowful heart, looking forward with trembling to the dark future and in constant terror at the thought of God as a stern, unrelenting judge, a cruel tyrant, rather than a kind heavenly Father. {GC 121.2}
     
06  路德虽然受到如此繁多而沉重的折磨,但他仍毅然向前迈进,为要追求那吸引他的道德和文化的崇高标准。他渴求知识;他那认真而实践的性格使他喜爱切实和有用的事,而轻看虚浮和肤浅的事。     Yet under so many and so great discouragements Luther pressed resolutely forward toward the high standard of moral and intellectual excellence which attracted his soul. He thirsted for knowledge, and the earnest and practical character of his mind led him to desire the solid and useful rather than the showy and superficial. {GC 121.3}
     
07  他十八岁入了艾弗大学,那时他的家境已经好转,他的前途比早年更光明了。他的父母经过多年的勤俭生活,已经有了一点积蓄,所以能供给他需要的费用。同时,他和几个贤明朋友的来往多少消除了他早期教育的恶影响。他在大学里专心研读最好的文学作品,并殷勤地将其中最有价值的思想存记在心,把智者的智慧化成自己的。就是在早年教师严厉的管教之下,他已经表现出是有天才的;如今他既受到更好的薰陶,他的智能就很快地发展了。他具有坚强的记忆力,活泼的想象力,和敏锐的理解力,再加上孜孜不倦的研究,他很快的就扶摇直上,脱颖而出。智力的锻炼使他的理解成熟,思想活泼,而辨识加强,为他一生的奋斗作了准备。     When, at the age of eighteen, he entered the University of Erfurt, his situation was more favorable and his prospects were brighter than in his earlier years. His parents having by thrift and industry acquired a competence, they were able to render him all needed assistance. And the influence of judicious friends had somewhat lessened the gloomy effects of his former training. He applied himself to the study of the best authors, diligently treasuring their most weighty thoughts and making the wisdom of the wise his own. Even under the harsh discipline of his former instructors he had early given promise of distinction, and with favorable influences his mind rapidly developed. A retentive memory, a lively imagination, strong reasoning powers, and untiring application soon placed him in the foremost rank among his associates. Intellectual discipline ripened his understanding and aroused an activity of mind and a keenness of perception that were preparing him for the conflicts of his life. {GC 121.4}
     
08  路德有敬畏耶和华的心,这足以使他的心志坚强,并在上帝面前深切自卑。他一直感觉到自己需要上帝的帮助,所以在每一天的开始,他总要先作祷告,同时他心中不住地祈求上天的引领和帮助。他常说:“祷告好,就是研究好的先决条件。”(注一)     The fear of the Lord dwelt in the heart of Luther, enabling him to maintain his steadfastness of purpose and leading him to deep humility before God. He had an abiding sense of his dependence upon divine aid, and he did not fail to begin each day with prayer, while his heart was continually breathing a petition for guidance and support. "To pray well," he often said, "is the better half of study."-- D'Aubigne, b. 2, ch. 2. {GC 122.1}
     
09  有一天路德在大学的图书馆里翻阅图书,偶然发现了一本拉丁文的《圣经》。这一本书是他从来没有见过的。他根本不晓得有这样的一本书存在。他固然在礼拜聚会时听过领会的人朗诵福音书和新约书信中的几段话,但他以为这几段话就是《圣经》的全部内容了。这时是他平生第一次看到一部完整的《圣经》。于是他心中百感交集,恭敬而惊奇地逐页翻阅。他思潮起伏,情不自禁地亲自读到了生命之道,他一面读着,一面感叹道:“惟愿上帝给我这样一本书作我自己的宝贝!”(注二)有天上的使者在他身边,并有从上帝宝座那里来的光亮照明真理的宝藏。固然,他向来是不敢得罪上帝的;但现在他深深觉悟到自己是一个罪人,这种觉悟是他从来所没有过的。     While one day examining the books in the library of the university, Luther discovered a Latin Bible. Such a book he had never before seen. He was ignorant even of its existence. He had heard portions of the Gospels and Epistles, which were read to the people at public worship, and he supposed that these were the entire Bible. Now, for the first time, he looked upon the whole of God's word. With mingled awe and wonder he turned the sacred pages; with quickened pulse and throbbing heart he read for himself the words of life, pausing now and then to exclaim: "O that God would give me such a book for myself!"--Ibid., b. 2, ch. 2. Angels of heaven were by his side, and rays of light from the throne of God revealed the treasures of truth to his understanding. He had ever feared to offend God, but now the deep conviction of his condition as a sinner took hold upon him as never before.
     
10  由于他诚心要摆脱罪担,并与上帝和好,他终于入了修道院,打算终身作修道士。他必须在修道院里从事最卑微的苦工,并挨家讨饭,在他那青年时期,他的本性爱好人的尊敬和重视,所以这种卑微的工作使他精神上非常痛苦;但他耐心地忍受了这种屈辱,并相信他所以必须忍受这一切的,乃是因了自己的罪。     An earnest desire to be free from sin and to find peace with God led him at last to enter a cloister and devote himself to a monastic life. Here he was required to perform the lowest drudgery and to beg from house to house. He was at an age when respect and appreciation are most eagerly craved, and these menial offices were deeply mortifying to his natural feelings; but he patiently endured this humiliation, believing that it was necessary because of his sins. {GC 123.1}
     
11  路德在每日劳作上所余下来的光阴,他都用来研究,甚至废寝忘食,专心研读。他所最喜爱研究的乃是《圣经》。他在修道院里见到一部《圣经》,是用链锁在墙上的,他便时常到那里去阅读。当他深深感到罪的沉重时,他便设法靠自己的行为得到赦免与平安。于是他自己便过一种非常严格的生活,企图借禁食,夜半的祈祷,和肉体上的鞭伤来抑制本性的罪恶。虽然他甘愿付出一切的牺牲,以期得到心灵的纯洁和得蒙上帝的悦纳。但这种罪恶不是修道院的生活所能解决的,日后他回忆,说:“那时我确是一个虔诚的修道士。我曾严格地遵守所属宗派的规则。如果一个修道士真可以靠自己的行为进入天国的话,那么我必定是可以进去的了。……如果我一直继续苦修的话,我很可能连性命都送掉了。”(注三)由于他这种刻苦的锻炼,他的体力衰弱了,甚至时常晕倒,后来他一直未能完全摆脱这种病害的影响。但即使这样努力苦修,他那痛苦的心灵始终没有得到平安。日后他被迫得几乎要绝望了。     Every moment that could be spared from his daily duties he employed in study, robbing himself of sleep and grudging even the time spent at his scanty meals. Above everything else he delighted in the study of God's word. He had found a Bible chained to the convent wall, and to this he often repaired. As his convictions of sin deepened, he sought by his own works to obtain pardon and peace. He led a most rigorous life, endeavoring by fasting, vigils, and scourgings to subdue the evils of his nature, from which the monastic life had brought no release. He shrank from no sacrifice by which he might attain to that purity of heart which would enable him to stand approved before God. "I was indeed a pious monk," he afterward said, "and followed the rules of my order more strictly than I can express. If ever monk could obtain heaven by his monkish works, I should certainly have been entitled to it. . . . If it had continued much longer, I should have carried my mortifications even to death."--Ibid., b. 2, ch. 3. As the result of this painful discipline he lost strength and suffered from fainting spasms, from the effects of which he never fully recovered. But with all his efforts his burdened soul found no relief. He was at last driven to the verge of despair. {GC 123.2}
     
12  在路德看来一切都没有希望的时候,上帝兴起了一个朋友来帮助他。虔诚的斯道庇兹把上帝的道向他讲明了,劝他不要只看自己,也不要一直想念那违犯上帝律法所招致的刑罚,只要仰望赦免他罪愆的救主耶稣。“不要为自己的罪而加害己身,只要把自己完全交在救赎主的怀抱里。要信靠他,信靠他生平的义,信靠他借舍命而成就的救赎。……要听从上帝的儿子。他为使你得到上帝的恩眷而成了肉身。”“你要爱那先爱你的主。”(注四)这位怜爱的使者斯道庇兹这样向他讲话,他的话在路德心中留下深刻的印象。路德与自己思想中根深蒂固的错谬经过多次的挣扎,终于掌握到真理,他困苦的心灵也就得到平安了。     When it appeared to Luther that all was lost, God raised up a friend and helper for him. The pious Staupitz opened the word of God to Luther's mind and bade him look away from himself, cease the contemplation of infinite punishment for the violation of God's law, and look to Jesus, his sin-pardoning Saviour. "Instead of torturing yourself on account of your sins, throw yourself into the Redeemer's arms. Trust in Him, in the righteousness of His life, in the atonement of His death. . . . Listen to the Son of God. He became man to give you the assurance of divine favor." "Love Him who first loved you."--Ibid., b. 2, ch. 4. Thus spoke this messenger of mercy. His words made a deep impression upon Luther's mind. After many a struggle with long-cherished errors, he was enabled to grasp the truth, and peace came to his troubled soul. {GC 123.3}
     
13  路德被封为神父,后来威丁堡大学聘他担任教授,他就离开了修道院。在大学里,他专心研究原文《圣经》。他开始讲授《圣经》,将诗篇,福音书和新约书信讲给成群欢喜倾听的人。他的朋友与师长斯道庇兹劝他到礼拜堂里去讲道;路德却踌躇不前,自觉不配奉基督的名向人宣讲上帝的话。经过了长时期的思想挣扎,他终于依从了朋友的劝化。那时他已经是很熟悉《圣经》的了。而且有上帝的恩典在他身上。他的口才吸引了他的听众,他使真理显得清楚有力,使众人感悟而信服,他的热忱融化了他们的心。     Luther was ordained a priest and was called from the cloister to a professorship in the University of Wittenberg. Here he applied himself to the study of the Scriptures in the original tongues. He began to lecture upon the Bible; and the book of Psalms, the Gospels, and the Epistles were opened to the understanding of crowds of delighted listeners. Staupitz, his friend and superior, urged him to ascend the pulpit and preach the word of God. Luther hesitated, feeling himself unworthy to speak to the people in Christ's stead. It was only after a long struggle that he yielded to the solicitations of his friends. Already he was mighty in the Scriptures, and the grace of God rested upon him. His eloquence captivated his hearers, the clearness and power with which he presented the truth convinced their understanding, and his fervor touched their hearts. {GC 124.1}
     
14  这时路德还是罗马教的忠实信徒,而且根本无意改变这个身份。由于上帝的安排,他得到一次机会旅行往罗马城去。他是徒步行路的,沿途寄宿在各地的修道院。在意大利的一个修道院里,他所看到富裕奢侈的现象使他非常惊奇。那里的修道士既有丰富的收入,便住在壮丽的宅第里,每天过着锦衣玉食的生活。路德便在痛苦矛盾的心境之下,拿这种现象和他自己克己艰苦的生活作了对比。于是他心中就感到非常困惑了。     Luther was still a true son of the papal church and had no thought that he would ever be anything else. In the providence of God he was led to visit Rome. He pursued his journey on foot, lodging at the monasteries on the way. At a convent in Italy he was filled with wonder at the wealth, magnificence, and luxury that he witnessed. Endowed with a princely revenue, the monks dwelt in splendid apartments, attired themselves in the richest and most costly robes, and feasted at a sumptuous table. With painful misgivings Luther contrasted this scene with the self-denial and hardship of his own life. His mind was becoming perplexed. {GC 124.2}
     
15  最后,那坐落在七个山头上的罗马城远远在望了。路德深深感动地俯伏在地喊着说:“神圣的罗马,我问你安!”(注五)他随即进了城,拜访了各处的教堂,聆听了那里的神父和修道士们所讲的神迹奇事,并遵守了那应守的种种礼节。他到处看见许多令他惊奇而厌恶的事。他看到在各等级的僧侣中普遍存在着罪恶。他听到主教们讲说猥亵的戏语,又因他们可怕亵渎的话而憎厌不已,就是在献弥撒祭的时候,他们还要讲这样的丑话。当他与修道士和平民接触的时候,他所遇到的乃是放荡和淫佚。他无论到何处去,在应当找到圣洁事物的地方,他却遇见了亵慢的事。他后来写道:“没有人能想象到罗马城里罪恶卑鄙情况的万一。若不是亲眼看见,就没有人能置信。无怪有人说:‘如果真有地狱的话,罗马必是造在其上的。各种的罪恶都从这个深渊涌出来。’”(注六)     At last he beheld in the distance the seven-hilled city. With deep emotion he prostrated himself upon the earth, exclaiming: "Holy Rome, I salute thee!"--Ibid., b. 2, ch. 6. He entered the city, visited the churches, listened to the marvelous tales repeated by priests and monks, and performed all the ceremonies required. Everywhere he looked upon scenes that filled him with astonishment and horror. He saw that iniquity existed among all classes of the clergy. He heard indecent jokes from prelates, and was filled with horror at their awful profanity, even during mass. As he mingled with the monks and citizens he met dissipation, debauchery. Turn where he would, in the place of sanctity he found profanation. "No one can imagine," he wrote, "what sins and infamous actions are committed in Rome; they must be seen and heard to be believed. Thus they are in the habit of saying, 'If there is a hell, Rome is built over it: it is an abyss whence issues every kind of sin.'"--Ibid., b. 2, ch. 6. {GC 124.3}
     
16  由于新近颁布的御旨,教皇应许凡是双膝下跪攀登“彼拉多台阶”的人,他们的罪都可以赦免;据说,这个台阶就是从前救主离开罗马巡抚审判厅的时候所走过的台阶,后来是以神奇的方式从耶路撒冷运到罗马来的。有一天路德正在虔诚地攀登这个台阶时,忽然有一个声音象雷霆一样,似乎对他说:“义人必因信得生。”(罗1:17)他立即站了起来,羞愧而惶恐地走了下来。这一节经文在他心上始终没有失去感动力。从那时起,他更清楚地看出靠自己的行为得救是多么愚妄,并看出自己必须经常信靠基督的功劳。对于罗马教的虚假,路德已经看穿了,而且今后永不会再盲从。当他掉转脚步离开罗马的时候,他的心也就永远离开罗马了;从那日起,他与罗马之间的距离越来越远,直到他与罗马教会完全绝交为止。     By a recent decretal an indulgence had been promised by the pope to all who should ascend upon their knees "Pilate's staircase," said to have been descended by our Saviour on leaving the Roman judgment hall and to have been miraculously conveyed from Jerusalem to Rome. Luther was one day devoutly climbing these steps, when suddenly a voice like thunder seemed to say to him: "The just shall live by faith." Romans 1:17. He sprang to his feet and hastened from the place in shame and horror. That text never lost its power upon his soul. From that time he saw more clearly than ever before the fallacy of trusting to human works for salvation, and the necessity of constant faith in the merits of Christ. His eyes had been opened, and were never again to be closed, to the delusions of the papacy. When he turned his face from Rome he had turned away also in heart, and from that time the separation grew wider, until he severed all connection with the papal church. {GC 125.1}
     
17  路德从罗马回来之后,在威丁堡大学得到神学博士的学位。这时,他能比早先更自由地专心研究他所爱的《圣经》了。他已经起了严肃的誓约,愿意终身专门研究并忠实地传讲上帝的话,而不讲教皇的言论和教训。他已经不再是一个普通的修道士或大学教授,而是正式被任命为讲解《圣经》的人。他已蒙召作牧人来喂养上帝饥渴慕义的羊群。他坚决地声称,除了那以《圣经》的权威为基础的教训之外,其他的言论基督徒应当一概拒绝。这句话直接打击到教皇至高权威的基础,并且包含着宗教改革运动的基本原则。     After his return from Rome, Luther received at the University of Wittenberg the degree of doctor of divinity. Now he was at liberty to devote himself, as never before, to the Scriptures that he loved. He had taken a solemn vow to study carefully and to preach with fidelity the word of God, not the sayings and doctrines of the popes, all the days of his life. He was no longer the mere monk or professor, but the authorized herald of the Bible. He had been called as a shepherd to feed the flock of God, that were hungering and thirsting for the truth. He firmly declared that Christians should receive no other doctrines than those which rest on the authority of the Sacred Scriptures. These words struck at the very foundation of papal supremacy. They contained the vital principle of the Reformation. {GC 125.2}
     
18  路德看出高举人的理论过于《圣经》的教训是多么危险。他无畏地攻击当时一般学者所倡导否定上帝的空洞神学,他痛斥这种学理,说它不但无益,而且有害;所以他设法使听众的思想脱离当时哲学和神学家的巧言,而转向先知与使徒们所陈明的永恒真理。     Luther saw the danger of exalting human theories above the word of God. He fearlessly attacked the speculative infidelity of the schoolmen and opposed the philosophy and theology which had so long held a controlling influence upon the people. He denounced such studies as not only worthless but pernicious, and sought to turn the minds of his hearers from the sophistries of philosophers and theologians to the eternal truths set forth by prophets and apostles. {GC 126.1}
     
19  路德所传给专心倾听的群众的信息,实在是宝贵的。他们从来没有听过这样的教训。这有关救主之爱的大喜信息,这靠他赎罪之血而赐赦免与平安的应许,使他们心里充满喜乐和永生的盼望。在威丁堡所燃起的火光必要照到天涯地极,而且要发扬光大,直到末时。     Precious was the message which he bore to the eager crowds that hung upon his words. Never before had such teachings fallen upon their ears. The glad tidings of a Saviour's love, the assurance of pardon and peace through His atoning blood, rejoiced their hearts and inspired within them an immortal hope. At Wittenberg a light was kindled whose rays should extend to the uttermost parts of the earth, and which was to increase in brightness to the close of time. {GC 126.2}
     
20  可是光明与黑暗是不能协和的。在真理与邪道之间存在着无可避免的冲突。既要支持并保护这一方面,就必须攻击并推翻那一方面。我们的救主亲自说过:“我来,并不是叫地上太平,乃是叫地上动刀兵。”(太10:34)在宗教改革运动开始数年之后,路德说道:“上帝并不是引领着我,乃是推着我猛进,带着我向前。我不能支配自己。我很想过些安舒的日子;但总被置于扰攘和革命之中。”(注七)况且这时他正被催逼着去参加又一次的论辩呢。     But light and darkness cannot harmonize. Between truth and error there is an irrepressible conflict. To uphold and defend the one is to attack and overthrow the other. Our Saviour Himself declared: "I came not to send peace, but a sword." Matthew 10:34. Said Luther, a few years after the opening of the Reformation: "God does not guide me, He pushes me forward. He carries me away. I am not master of myself. I desire to live in repose; but I am thrown into the midst of tumults and revolutions."--D'Aubigne, b. 5, ch. 2. He was now about to be urged into the contest. {GC 126.3}
     
21  罗马教会竟拿上帝的恩典作为商品出卖了。兑换银钱之人的桌子(见太21:12)竟被安置在她的讲台旁边,空中也充满了作买卖之人的喧嚣。罗马教假借在罗马城兴建圣彼得堂的名义,仗着教皇的权柄,公开贩卖赎罪券。他们要拿罪恶的代价来建造一所敬拜上帝的圣殿,──用罪孽的工价奠定它的根基!但结果这用来增进罗马光彩的方法,正好引起了那摧毁她权力和荣誉的最沉重的打击。这一件事激起了教皇的最坚决而有力的敌人,结果爆发了一次战争,以致震动了教皇的宝座,并几乎把他的三重冠冕从头上震了下来。     The Roman Church had made merchandise of the grace of God. The tables of the money-changers (Matthew 21:12) were set up beside her altars, and the air resounded with the shouts of buyers and sellers. Under the plea of raising funds for the erection of St. Peter's Church at Rome, indulgences for sin were publicly offered for sale by the authority of the pope. By the price of crime a temple was to be built up for God's worship--the cornerstone laid with the wages of iniquity! But the very means adopted for Rome's aggrandizement provoked the deadliest blow to her power and greatness. It was this that aroused the most determined and successful of the enemies of popery, and led to the battle which shook the papal throne and jostled the triple crown upon the pontiff's head. {GC 127.1}
     
22  奉命到德国来贩卖赎罪券的人名叫帖慈尔。这人犯过滔天的罪行,为社会人士和上帝的律法所不容;现今他居然能逃脱应受的刑罚,并受教会重用去推进教皇那唯利是图的狂妄计划。他厚颜无耻地说了一些最明显的谎言,又讲了许多神话奇事来欺骗一般愚鲁,幼稚,和迷信的民众。如果这些人手里有了《圣经》,他们就不至于被欺哄了。可见罗马教不许百姓阅读《圣经》,就是为要把他们控制在教廷的势力之下,借此增加野心的教会领袖们的权力和财富。     The official appointed to conduct the sale of indulgences in Germany--Tetzel by name--had been convicted of the basest offenses against society and against the law of God; but having escaped the punishment due for his crimes, he was employed to further the mercenary and unscrupulous projects of the pope. With great effrontery he repeated the most glaring falsehoods and related marvelous tales to deceive an ignorant, credulous, and superstitious people. Had they possessed the word of God they would not have been thus deceived. It was to keep them under the control of the papacy, in order to swell the power and wealth of her ambitious leaders, that the Bible had been withheld from them. (See John C. L. Gieseler, A Compendium of Ecclesiastical History, per. 4, sec. 1, par. 5.) {GC 127.2}
     
23  每当帖慈尔到一个城镇的时候,总是派一个差役走在前面,宣布说:“上帝和圣父(教皇)的恩典临门了!”(注八)于是百姓就出来欢迎这个亵渎上帝的骗子,把他当作从天降临的神明一样看待。可耻的赎罪券交易便在教堂里开始了,帖慈尔则登上讲台,大事宣传,说赎罪券有神奇的效能;可以预赦购买人将来所犯的一切罪,而且“连悔改也是不必要的。”(注九)再者,他向听众保证,赎罪券非但能救活着的人,而且也能救死了的人;他们的钱币何时碰到库底,叮当一响,他们所代为付款的死人的灵魂便立即从地狱里升到天堂了。     As Tetzel entered a town, a messenger went before him, announcing: "The grace of God and of the holy father is at your gates."--D'Aubigne, b. 3, ch. 1. And the people welcomed the blasphemous pretender as if he were God Himself come down from heaven to them. The infamous traffic was set up in the church, and Tetzel, ascending the pulpit, extolled the indulgences as the most precious gift of God. He declared that by virtue of his certificates of pardon all the sins which the purchaser should afterward desire to commit would be forgiven him, and that "not even repentance is necessary."--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 1. More than this, he assured his hearers that the indulgences had power to save not only the living but the dead; that the very moment the money should clink against the bottom of his chest, the soul in whose behalf it had been paid would escape from purgatory and make its way to heaven. (See K. R. Hagenbach, History of the Reformation, vol. 1, p. 96.) {GC 127.3}
     
24  从前行邪术的西门要向使徒购买行奇事的能力时,彼得回答他说:“你的银子和你一同灭亡吧!因你想上帝的恩赐是可以用钱买的。”(徒8:20)但帖慈尔所提供的赎罪券却为千万人所抢购。金子和银子源源不绝地流入他的钱库。一种可以用银钱购买的救恩,确是比那必须借着悔改,信心,抗拒并制胜罪恶而得的救恩更容易获取呢。     When Simon Magus offered to purchase of the apostles the power to work miracles, Peter answered him: "Thy money perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money." Acts 8:20. But Tetzel's offer was grasped by eager thousands. Gold and silver flowed into his treasury. A salvation that could be bought with money was more easily obtained than that which requires repentance, faith, and diligent effort to resist and overcome sin. (See Appendix note for page 59.) {GC 128.1}
     
25  赎罪券的错谬道理曾经被罗马教会一些有学问的敬虔分子所反对,况且有许多人也不相信这种违背理性与启示的虚谎。虽然当时连作主教的都不敢对这罪恶的交易提出任何抗议;但总有许多人心中颇为不安,而且其中也有不少人恳切询问上帝是否要采取什么方式来洁净他的教会。     The doctrine of indulgences had been opposed by men of learning and piety in the Roman Church, and there were many who had no faith in pretensions so contrary to both reason and revelation. No prelate dared lift his voice against this iniquitous traffic; but the minds of men were becoming disturbed and uneasy, and many eagerly inquired if God would not work through some instrumentality for the purification of His church. {GC 128.2}
     
26  这时路德虽然是一个极严格的罗马教徒,他却因赎罪贩子亵慢的妄言而震惊不已。他自己教堂里的许多教徒都买了赎罪券,过了不久,他们便前来向他承认他们的许多罪,并指望立刻得蒙豁免,不是因为他们痛悔前非,决心改过,乃是因为买了赎罪券的缘故。路德不肯向他们宣布豁免,却警告他们,如果他们不真实忏悔,在生活上改过,他们就必死在罪中。于是这些人就困恼不悦地回到帖慈尔那里向他诉苦,说,他们的神父不承认他们的赎罪券;还有一些人大胆地要他当场退钱。帖慈尔听了勃然大怒,破口谩骂,吩咐在各十字路口上点起烟火,公然宣布他已经“奉了教皇的命令,要将一切胆敢反对他最神圣赎罪券的人活活的烧死。”(注十)     Luther, though still a papist of the straitest sort, was filled with horror at the blasphemous assumptions of the indulgence mongers. Many of his own congregation had purchased certificates of pardon, and they soon began to come to their pastor, confessing their various sins, and expecting absolution, not because they were penitent and wished to reform, but on the ground of the indulgence. Luther refused them absolution, and warned them that unless they should repent and reform their lives, they must perish in their sins. In great perplexity they repaired to Tetzel with the complaint that their confessor had refused his certificates; and some boldly demanded that their money be returned to them. The friar was filled with rage. He uttered the most terrible curses, caused fires to be lighted in the public squares, and declared that he "had received an order from the pope to burn all heretics who presumed to oppose his most holy indulgences."--D'Aubigne, b. 3, ch. 4. {GC 128.3}
     
27  这时路德便挺身而出,要为真理抗争了。他常在讲台上发出诚恳严肃的警告。他向人说明罪恶的可憎性,并教训他们,人类决不能靠自己的行为减轻自己的罪愆或逃避其刑罚。罪人惟有向上帝悔改,并笃信基督才能得救。基督的恩典是不能用银钱购买的;它乃是白白给人的恩赐。他劝人不要买赎罪券,却要凭着信心仰望钉十字架的救赎主。他叙述了自己过去的痛苦经验,说明自己怎样想靠自卑和苦修来获得救恩,结果他还是借着不看自己而相信基督,才找到了平安和喜乐。     Luther now entered boldly upon his work as a champion of the truth. His voice was heard from the pulpit in earnest, solemn warning. He set before the people the offensive character of sin, and taught them that it is impossible for man, by his own works, to lessen its guilt or evade its punishment. Nothing but repentance toward God and faith in Christ can save the sinner. The grace of Christ cannot be purchased; it is a free gift. He counseled the people not to buy indulgences, but to look in faith to a crucified Redeemer. He related his own painful experience in vainly seeking by humiliation and penance to secure salvation, and assured his hearers that it was by looking away from himself and believing in Christ that he found peace and joy. {GC 129.1}
     
28  当帖慈尔继续他的买卖和亵渎的欺骗工作时,路德决定用更有效的方法来抗议这些彰明昭著的弊端。过不久,他有了一个机会。威丁堡的一个古教堂里藏有许多“遗物”,(译者按:例如十字架上的一块碎木,古时圣人的骸骨等等。)每逢节期陈列出来,凡到该教堂来认罪的人,都可以得到豁免。所以在这些节期间,前来礼拜的人甚多。这时有一个最重大的节期,即“万圣节”届临。路德在前一天跟着拥往该教堂的一群人到达该地,随将写好的一张反对赎罪券的九十五条条文钉在教堂门上;同时声明,如果有人要来辩论的话,他愿意次日在威丁堡大学为这九十五条条文辩护。     As Tetzel continued his traffic and his impious pretensions, Luther determined upon a more effectual protest against these crying abuses. An occasion soon offered. The castle church of Wittenberg possessed many relics, which on certain holy days were exhibited to the people, and full remission of sins was granted to all who then visited the church and made confession. Accordingly on these days the people in great numbers resorted thither. One of the most important of these occasions, the festival of All Saints, was approaching. On the preceding day, Luther, joining the crowds that were already making their way to the church, posted on its door a paper containing ninety-five propositions against the doctrine of indulgences. He declared his willingness to defend these theses next day at the university, against all who should see fit to attack them. {GC 129.2}
     
29  这些条文引起了普遍的注意。众人把它看了又看,并到处传讲,议论纷纷。威丁堡大学甚至全城的空气因而紧张起来。这些条文说明上帝从来没有把赦罪或豁免罪刑的权柄交给教皇或任何人。这整个计划简直是一出骗人的滑稽戏剧,──是用来愚弄百姓,勒索钱财的手段,──是撒但用来毁灭一切轻信他谎言之人的巧计。这些条文也说明基督的福音乃是教会最贵重的财宝,而且福音所阐明的上帝的恩典,是白白赐给凡借悔改和信心来寻求之人的。     His propositions attracted universal attention. They were read and reread, and repeated in every direction. Great excitement was created in the university and in the whole city. By these theses it was shown that the power to grant the pardon of sin, and to remit its penalty, had never been committed to the pope or to any other man. The whole scheme was a farce,--an artifice to extort money by playing upon the superstitions of the people,--a device of Satan to destroy the souls of all who should trust to its lying pretensions. It was also clearly shown that the gospel of Christ is the most valuable treasure of the church, and that the grace of God, therein revealed, is freely bestowed upon all who seek it by repentance and faith. {GC 130.1}
     
30  路德公布的条文欢迎人来进行讨论,可是没有人胆敢应战。不过几天,他所提出的问题已经传遍德国,又过几个星期,则传遍当时的基督教世界了。许多为教会中流行的罪恶而悲愤的虔诚罗马教徒一读到路德的条文,大大欢喜,认明这必是出于上帝的启示。他们认定主已经伸手遏制那从罗马教廷涌出来的日甚一日的腐化影响。许多王侯和官长见到那不许任何人过问其权威的势力受到挫折,暗中庆幸万分。     Luther's theses challenged discussion; but no one dared accept the challenge. The questions which he proposed had in a few days spread through all Germany, and in a few weeks they had sounded throughout Christendom. Many devoted Romanists, who had seen and lamented the terrible iniquity prevailing in the church, but had not known how to arrest its progress, read the propositions with great joy, recognizing in them the voice of God. They felt that the Lord had graciously set His hand to arrest the rapidly swelling tide of corruption that was issuing from the see of Rome. Princes and magistrates secretly rejoiced that a check was to be put upon the arrogant power which denied the right of appeal from its decisions. {GC 130.2}
     
31  但一般喜爱罪恶的迷信群众,一看到那曾安抚他们恐惧的谬论竟被扫除,甚是恐慌。狡猾的僧侣们见他们赞助罪恶的工作受到拦阻,就大为恼怒,并联合一致来维护自己的虚谎。这位改革家遭到了许多恶毒的控告。有人说他是受情感冲动,操之过急;有人说他是僭越自恃,决不是受上帝的指示,而是出于骄傲自大,冒昧从事。路德回答说:“谁都知道,每逢有人提出一个新的主张,总不免有一点骄傲自大的嫌疑,被人诬为挑拨是非之人。……基督和许多殉道者是为什么而被害的呢?因为人看他们是轻视当代哲人的智慧,因为他们提出了一些新的主张而没有事先请教于古老的传统意见。”     But the sin-loving and superstitious multitudes were terrified as the sophistries that had soothed their fears were swept away. Crafty ecclesiastics, interrupted in their work of sanctioning crime, and seeing their gains endangered, were enraged, and rallied to uphold their pretensions. The Reformer had bitter accusers to meet. Some charged him with acting hastily and from impulse. Others accused him of presumption, declaring that he was not directed of God, but was acting from pride and forwardness. "Who does not know," he responded, "that a man rarely puts forth any new idea without having some appearance of pride, and without being accused of exciting quarrels? . . . Why were Christ and all the martyrs put to death? Because they seemed to be proud contemners of the wisdom of the time, and because they advanced novelties without having first humbly taken counsel of the oracles of the ancient opinions." {GC 130.3}
     
32  他又说:“凡我所要作的事决不会出于人的智慧,而必须出于上帝的旨意。这工作既是上帝的,谁能阻挡它呢?若不然,谁又能推动它呢?不是要听我的意思,也不是凭他们或我们的意思,乃是凭你在天上圣父的旨意。”(注十一)     Again he declared: "Whatever I do will be done, not by the prudence of men, but by the counsel of God. If the work be of God, who shall stop it? if it be not, who can forward it? Not my will, nor theirs, nor ours; but Thy will, O holy Father, which art in heaven."--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 6. {GC 131.1}
     
33  路德开始工作,虽然是出于上帝圣灵的感动,但他不是没有经过艰苦奋斗的。他敌人的责骂和诬蔑,以及对他人格和动机的阴毒毁谤,如同洪水一般向他冲来;结果也起了相当的作用,他起先总以为教会和教育界的领导人物必能欣然与他合作,进行改革的工作。一些身居高位的人当初所讲鼓励他的话,给他不少的安慰和希望。那时他已经可以在指望中看到教会走向未来的光明了。但结果人的鼓励竟变成责难和指控。教会和政府方面的许多大人物固然承认路德主张的正确性;但他们很快就看出人若接受这些真理,势必引起很大的变化。若要在民间提倡教育和改革,终于难免推翻罗马教廷的权威,并使多方面的经济来源枯竭,如此就要影响到教会领袖们的奢侈生活了。再者,如要教训百姓为自己的思想和行动负责,而只许仰望基督,靠他得救,势必推翻教皇的宝座,而终于破坏他们自己的权威。因此他们拒绝了上帝所要给他们的知识,并因反对他所差来光照他们的人,而实际上也就反对了基督和他的真理。     Though Luther had been moved by the Spirit of God to begin his work, he was not to carry it forward without severe conflicts. The reproaches of his enemies, their misrepresentation of his purposes, and their unjust and malicious reflections upon his character and motives, came in upon him like an overwhelming flood; and they were not without effect. He had felt confident that the leaders of the people, both in the church and in the schools, would gladly unite with him in efforts for reform. Words of encouragement from those in high position had inspired him with joy and hope. Already in anticipation he had seen a brighter day dawning for the church. But encouragement had changed to reproach and condemnation. Many dignitaries, of both church and state, were convicted of the truthfulness of his theses; but they soon saw that the acceptance of these truths would involve great changes. To enlighten and reform the people would be virtually to undermine the authority of Rome, to stop thousands of streams now flowing into her treasury, and thus greatly to curtail the extravagance and luxury of the papal leaders. Furthermore, to teach the people to think and act as responsible beings, looking to Christ alone for salvation, would overthrow the pontiff's throne and eventually destroy their own authority. For this reason they refused the knowledge tendered them of God and arrayed themselves against Christ and the truth by their opposition to the man whom He had sent to enlighten them. {GC 131.2}
     
34  路德看到自己的处境,──看到自己一人与世上最强大的势力相抗衡,──就不禁颤抖起来了。有时他还要怀疑上帝究竟是否在引导他,叫他反抗教会的权威。后来他写道:“我是谁,竟敢反抗这地上的君王与庶民所敬畏,威风凛凛的教皇?……谁不知道我头两年所受精神上的痛苦,以及所有灰心丧志的经验?”(注十二)但上帝没有让路德全然绝望。当人的支持落了空的时候,他只能仰望上帝,他学会了安心地依靠那全能的膀臂。     Luther trembled as he looked upon himself--one man opposed to the mightiest powers of earth. He sometimes doubted whether he had indeed been led of God to set himself against the authority of the church. "Who was I," he writes, "to oppose the majesty of the pope, before whom ... the kings of the earth and the whole world trembled? ... No one can know what my heart suffered during these first two years, and into what despondency, I may say into what despair, I was sunk."--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 6. But he was not left to become utterly disheartened. When human support failed, he looked to God alone and learned that he could lean in perfect safety upon that all-powerful arm. {GC 132.1}
     
35  路德在写给一位拥护改革运动的人说:“我们不能单靠研究或智力去明白《圣经》。你的第一个本分乃是事先祈祷,求主凭他的大怜爱使你能真正明白他的话。除了那启示这道的主以外,没有什么人能解释这道,正如他自己所说:‘你的儿女都要受耶和华的教训。’所以你不要想靠自己的努力和理解而有所收获。要单靠上帝和他圣灵的感召。这话你尽可相信,因为我是有过这种经验的。”(注十三)凡相信上帝已经选召他们去宣讲现代所需要严肃的真理的人,可以从这几句话中得着重要的教训。这些真理一定会引起撒但的仇恨,和那些喜爱撒但所捏造的虚谎之人的反对。所以在和恶势力争战时,我们需要比人的聪明智慧更大的力量。     To a friend of the Reformation Luther wrote: "We cannot attain to the understanding of Scripture either by study or by the intellect. Your first duty is to begin by prayer. Entreat the Lord to grant you, of His great mercy, the true understanding of His word. There is no other interpreter of the word of God than the Author of this word, as He Himself has said, 'They shall be all taught of God.' Hope for nothing from your own labors, from your own understanding: trust solely in God, and in the influence of His Spirit. Believe this on the word of a man who has had experience."--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 7. Here is a lesson of vital importance to those who feel that God has called them to present to others the solemn truths for this time. These truths will stir the enmity of Satan and of men who love the fables that he has devised. In the conflict with the powers of evil there is need of something more than strength of intellect and human wisdom. {GC 132.2}
     
36  当路德的仇敌用风俗,遗传,或教皇的言论与权威和他辩论时,他就单单拿《圣经》去应付他们。《圣经》里有许多他们所无法反驳的论据;于是那些被形式主义和迷信所束缚的奴隶们便恨不得要流他的血,正如古时犹太人要流基督的血一样。罗马教的狂热派喊着说:“他是个叛徒。谁若容忍这么可憎的叛徒继续存活一小时之久,谁就是犯了叛逆的罪。我们要立即为他树立绞刑架!”(注十四)但路德没有就此作了他们狂怒的牺牲品。上帝有一定的工作要他作,所以派天使来保护他。可是有许多从路德那里领受真光的人,却成了撒但忿怒的目标,并为真理的缘故勇敢地忍受了酷刑和死亡。     When enemies appealed to custom and tradition, or to the assertions and authority of the pope, Luther met them with the Bible and the Bible only. Here were arguments which they could not answer; therefore the slaves of formalism and superstition clamored for his blood, as the Jews had clamored for the blood of Christ. "He is a heretic," cried the Roman zealots. "It is high treason against the church to allow so horrible a heretic to live one hour longer. Let the scaffold be instantly erected for him!"--Ibid., b. 3, ch. 9. But Luther did not fall a prey to their fury. God had a work for him to do, and angels of heaven were sent to protect him. Many, however, who had received from Luther the precious light were made the objects of Satan's wrath and for the truth's sake fearlessly suffered torture and death. {GC 132.3}
     
37  路德的教训在德国普遍地引起了一般有思想之人的注意。从他的讲章和著作中射出亮光来,唤醒并光照了成千的人们。一个活泼的信仰正在代替那长久束缚着教会的形式主义了。百姓对罗马教的迷信逐渐失去了信心。老偏见的屏障渐渐被废去。路德用来试验每一个信条和主张的上帝的圣言,正象一把两刃的利剑一直刺入人心。处处有追求属灵长进的愿望;处处有空前饥渴慕义的心情。众人久已仰赖于人为的礼节和地上的中保,这时却以痛悔的信心转向钉十字架的基督了。     Luther's teachings attracted the attention of thoughtful minds throughout all Germany. From his sermons and writings issued beams of light which awakened and illuminated thousands. A living faith was taking the place of the dead formalism in which the church had so long been held. The people were daily losing confidence in the superstitions of Romanism. The barriers of prejudice were giving way. The word of God, by which Luther tested every doctrine and every claim, was like a two-edged sword, cutting its way to the hearts of the people. Everywhere there was awakening a desire for spiritual progress. Everywhere was such a hungering and thirsting after righteousness as had not been known for ages. The eyes of the people, so long directed to human rites and earthly mediators, were now turning in penitence and faith to Christ and Him crucified. {GC 133.1}
     
38  这种普遍性的兴趣使教会当局更加恐慌了。有一天路德接到一个通知,命令他去罗马为叛教的罪作交代。这个命令使他的朋友们极其恐慌。他们深知在那腐化的罗马城中所等待着路德的危险,因那城已经喝醉了耶稣圣徒的血。于是他们反对路德去罗马,并要求让他在德国受审。     This widespread interest aroused still further the fears of the papal authorities. Luther received a summons to appear at Rome to answer to the charge of heresy. The command filled his friends with terror. They knew full well the danger that threatened him in that corrupt city, already drunk with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. They protested against his going to Rome and requested that he receive his examination in Germany. {GC 133.2}
     
39  这办法终于照准了,教皇只得授权给他的代表去审问路德的案件。在教皇给他代表的指示中,他说明路德已经被宣判为叛教徒。所以他嘱咐代表“务要赶快办理,雷厉风行。”如果路德坚持他的主张,而代表又无法逮捕他的话,他便有权“宣布路德在德国全境失去法律的保护,并给一切和路德联络的人以放逐,咒诅,和开除教籍的处分。”(注十五)教皇又指示他的代表说,为要彻底铲除这瘟疫般的异端起见,若有官长不肯逮捕路德和他的同党交给罗马去惩办,那么除了皇帝一人之外,不问其在教会或国家职权等级的高低,一律处以开除教籍。     This arrangement was finally effected, and the pope's legate was appointed to hear the case. In the instructions communicated by the pontiff to this official, it was stated that Luther had already been declared a heretic. The legate was therefore charged "to prosecute and constrain without any delay." If he should remain steadfast, and the legate should fail to gain possession of his person, he was empowered "to proscribe him in every part of Germany; to banish, curse, and excommunicate all those who are attached to him."--Ibid., b. 4, ch. 2. And, further, the pope directed his legate, in order entirely to root out the pestilent heresy, to excommunicate all, of whatever dignity in church or state, except the emperor, who should neglect to seize Luther and his adherents, and deliver them up to the vengeance of Rome. {GC 133.3}
     
40  教皇制度的庐山真面目,于此可见一斑。在全部通令中看不到一点基督化的原则,甚至连一点普通公理的意味也没有。这时路德离罗马甚远;他还没有机会可以为自己申辩,而今在他的案情未经审问之前,他竟被宣布为一个叛教徒,而又在同一天被斥责,控告,宣判,而定罪;况且这一切还是那自命为“圣父,”为教会与国家独一至上,绝无错误的权威所办的事呢!     Here is displayed the true spirit of popery. Not a trace of Christian principle, or even of common justice, is to be seen in the whole document. Luther was at a great distance from Rome; he had had no opportunity to explain or defend his position; yet before his case had been investigated, he was summarily pronounced a heretic, and in the same day, exhorted, accused, judged, and condemned; and all this by the self-styled holy father, the only supreme, infallible authority in church or state! {GC 134.1}
     
41  正当此时,在路德最需要一位忠实朋友之同情和指导的时候,上帝就派梅兰克吞到威丁堡来。这人年纪尚轻,为人谦恭有礼;他持重的判断,渊博的学问,和动人的口才,加上他人格的纯洁和正直,博得人们的钦佩和景仰。在他聪明的天才之外,他还有温和的性格。他很快就成了福音的热心门徒,和路德所最信任的有力助手。梅兰克吞温柔,审慎,和仔细的作风正好辅佐了路德的勇敢和魄力。二人的合作为宗教改革运动增添了不少能力,也给路德很大的鼓励。     At this time, when Luther so much needed the sympathy and counsel of a true friend, God's providence sent Melanchthon to Wittenberg. Young in years, modest and diffident in his manners, Melanchthon's sound judgment, extensive knowledge, and winning eloquence, combined with the purity and uprightness of his character, won universal admiration and esteem. The brilliancy of his talents was not more marked than his gentleness of disposition. He soon became an earnest disciple of the gospel, and Luther's most trusted friend and valued supporter; his gentleness, caution, and exactness serving as a complement to Luther's courage and energy. Their union in the work added strength to the Reformation and was a source of great encouragement to Luther. {GC 134.2}
     
42  审问路德的地方指定在奥斯堡城,路德便步行到那里去。许多人为他非常担心。有人曾经公然地威胁他,说要在路上谋害他,所以他的朋友就恳劝他不可冒险。他们甚至劝他离开威丁堡一个时期,而投奔到一些乐意保护他的人那里去。但他却不肯离开上帝所派给他的岗位。不管有多大的暴风雨摧逼着他,他必须忠实地继续维护真理。他对人说:“我是像耶利米一样‘相争相兢的人’;人威胁我的话越多,我就越发喜乐。……他们已经破坏了我的名誉和声望,现在只余下我这卑贱的身体了!他们尽管把它拿去;他们可以把我的寿命缩短几小时。至于我的灵魂,却是他们拿不走的啊。凡愿望把基督的道传给世界的人,必须准备随时丧命。”(注十六)     Augsburg had been fixed upon as the place of trial, and the Reformer set out on foot to perform the journey thither. Serious fears were entertained in his behalf. Threats had been made openly that he would be seized and murdered on the way, and his friends begged him not to venture. They even entreated him to leave Wittenberg for a time and find safety with those who would gladly protect him. But he would not leave the position where God had placed him. He must continue faithfully to maintain the truth, notwithstanding the storms that were beating upon him. His language was: "I am like Jeremiah, a man of strife and contention; but the more their threats increase, the more my joy is multiplied. . . . They have already destroyed my honor and my reputation. One single thing remains; it is my wretched body: let them take it; they will thus shorten my life by a few hours. But as for my soul, they cannot take that. He who desires to proclaim the word of Christ to the world, must expect death at every moment."--Ibid., b. 4, ch. 4. {GC 134.3}
     
43  教皇的使臣得到了路德到奥斯堡的消息,甚是得意。这个兴风作浪,引起全世界人注意的叛教徒现今总算落到罗马的权势之下了,使臣决意不让他逃脱。这时这位改革家还没有为自己申请护照。他的朋友劝他在尚未领到护照之前,万不可去见教皇的使臣,于是他们自行为他向皇帝申请护照。使臣决定要尽可能地强迫路德反悔,如果不成功的话,就设法把他送到罗马去受胡斯和耶罗米一样的厄运。所以他设法通过他的爪牙告诉路德不必领取护照,而完全信任使臣的慈心。这一点路德不能同意。他必须待领到皇帝保证他安全的证件,然后才去见教皇的使臣。     The tidings of Luther's arrival at Augsburg gave great satisfaction to the papal legate. The troublesome heretic who was exciting the attention of the whole world seemed now in the power of Rome, and the legate determined that he should not escape. The Reformer had failed to provide himself with a safe-conduct. His friends urged him not to appear before the legate without one, and they themselves undertook to procure it from the emperor. The legate intended to force Luther, if possible, to retract, or, failing in this, to cause him to be conveyed to Rome, to share the fate of Huss and Jerome. Therefore through his agents he endeavored to induce Luther to appear without a safe-conduct, trusting himself to his mercy. This the Reformer firmly declined to do. Not until he had received the document pledging him the emperor's protection, did he appear in the presence of the papal ambassador. {GC 135.1}
     
44  罗马教廷的政策是先设法用柔和的手段争取路德。使臣和他会谈的时候,起初表示非常友善;但他一味要求路德必须无条件地服从教会的权威;并在任何问题上不加辩论而完全屈服。可见他对于他的对手并没有正确的估计。路德回答说,他尊重教会,而又喜爱真理。并愿随时答复一切有关他教训的意见,然后请几个主要的大学来批判他所讲的道。同时路德抗议使臣在尚未证明他有错误之前就叫他反悔。     As a matter of policy, the Romanists had decided to attempt to win Luther by an appearance of gentleness. The legate, in his interviews with him, professed great friendliness; but he demanded that Luther submit implicitly to the authority of the church, and yield every point without argument or question. He had not rightly estimated the character of the man with whom he had to deal. Luther, in reply, expressed his regard for the church, his desire for the truth, his readiness to answer all objections to what he had taught, and to submit his doctrines to the decision of certain leading universities. But at the same time he protested against the cardinal's course in requiring him to retract without having proved him in error. {GC 135.2}
     
45  使臣唯一的答复乃是“反悔,反悔!”这位改革家说明他的立场是以《圣经》为根据的,所以坚决的声明他不能放弃真理。使臣既无法答复路德的论据,便拿出一连串责备,挖苦,和谄媚的话,间或引证古人的传说和教父的言论,口若悬河,滔滔不绝,不让路德有讲话的机会。路德看出这样继续下去是枉费光阴的,随即要求作书面的答复,使臣终于勉强同意了。     The only response was: "Retract, retract!" The Reformer showed that his position was sustained by the Scriptures and firmly declared that he could not renounce the truth. The legate, unable to reply to Luther's arguments, overwhelmed him with a storm of reproaches, gibes, and flattery, interspersed with quotations from tradition and the sayings of the Fathers, granting the Reformer no opportunity to speak. Seeing that the conference, thus continued, would be utterly futile, Luther finally obtained a reluctant permission to present his answer in writing. {GC 136.1}
     
46  后来路德写信给朋友论到此事说:“这样我这受压迫的人可以得到双重的利益;第一,凡写下来的话可以拿给别人看,请他们批评;第二,我有更好的机会,即或不能引动一个骄傲自大,呶呶不休的独裁者的良心,也可以多少叫他生一点恐惧,不然他真要用蛮横无理的话把我压倒了。”(注十七)     "In so doing," said he, writing to a friend, "the oppressed find double gain; first, what is written may be submitted to the judgment of others; and second, one has a better chance of working on the fears, if not on the conscience, of an arrogant and babbling despot, who would otherwise overpower by his imperious language."--Martyn, The Life and Times of Luther, pages 271, 272. {GC 136.2}
     
47  在下一次的会谈中,路德对自己的主见作了一个清楚,简明而有力的解释,其中引证了许多经文作根据。他宣读了这一篇文章之后,把它交给使臣,而使臣轻蔑地把它丢在一边,说,其中不过是许多废话和与论旨无关的经文。这时路德的精神才全振作起来,拿使臣自己的武器,就是教会的遗传和人的教训来对付他,结果把使臣驳倒了。     At the next interview, Luther presented a clear, concise, and forcible exposition of his views, fully supported by many quotations from Scripture. This paper, after reading aloud, he handed to the cardinal, who, however, cast it contemptuously aside, declaring it to be a mass of idle words and irrelevant quotations. Luther, fully aroused, now met the haughty prelate on his own ground--the traditions and teachings of the church--and utterly overthrew his assumptions. {GC 136.3}
     
48  使臣既看出路德的论证是无法对抗的,就不能再含忍下去,于是大声喊着说:“反悔!不然我要把你送到罗马去,在那里有法官审问你的案件。我要把你和你的同党,以及一切赞助你的人都开除教籍,赶出教会。”最后他用傲慢和发怒的声调说,“反悔!否则你就不必再到这里来!”(注十八)     When the prelate saw that Luther's reasoning was unanswerable, he lost all self-control, and in a rage cried out: "Retract! or I will send you to Rome, there to appear before the judges commissioned to take cognizance of your cause. I will excommunicate you and all your partisans, and all who shall at any time countenance you, and will cast them out of the church." And he finally declared, in a haughty and angry tone: "Retract, or return no more."--D'Aubigne, London ed., b. 4, ch. 8. {GC 136.4}
     
49  路德和旁听的几个朋友当即退出会场,借此表明休想从他口里听到什么反悔的话。但这并非使臣始料所及。他想一定能用威力把路德吓倒。但是现在他坐在众人当中,彼此面面相觑,为自己计策的失败而愤懑了。     The Reformer promptly withdrew with his friends, thus declaring plainly that no retraction was to be expected from him. This was not what the cardinal had purposed. He had flattered himself that by violence he could awe Luther to submission. Now, left alone with his supporters, he looked from one to another in utter chagrin at the unexpected failure of his schemes. {GC 137.1}
     
50  路德这次的努力不是没有良好结果的。当时聚集旁听的群众趁机把这两个人比较一下,并对二人所表现的精神,以及主张中的力量和真理,自行批判了。他们相形之下,显然是不同!改革家那俭朴,谦卑,和坚定的态度,显明他是靠着上帝的力量,并持有真理;而教皇的代表则高傲而蛮横地大摇大摆,耀武扬威,却拿不出一个以《圣经》为根据的论点来,只知虚声恫吓说:“反悔,否则我把你送到罗马去受处分。”     Luther's efforts on this occasion were not without good results. The large assembly present had opportunity to compare the two men, and to judge for themselves of the spirit manifested by them, as well as of the strength and truthfulness of their positions. How marked the contrast! The Reformer, simple, humble, firm, stood up in the strength of God, having truth on his side; the pope's representative, self-important, overbearing, haughty, and unreasonable, was without a single argument from the Scriptures, yet vehemently crying: "Retract, or be sent to Rome for punishment." {GC 137.2}
     
51  路德虽然领有护照,但罗马教廷仍想用阴谋将他逮捕监禁,他的朋友们认为他继续逗留在奥斯堡是无用的,所以劝他立即回到威丁堡去,而且一切动静必须严守秘密。于是路德在次日尚未破晓之前,就骑马离开了奥斯堡,只有市长所派的一个向导伴他上路。于是在危机四伏的紧张局势之下,他秘密地穿过黑暗而寂静的街道。这时,他那残酷而戒备森严的敌人正在阴谋要消灭他。他可能逃脱那为他布置的网罗么?那短短的一刻乃是焦虑而诚恳祷告的时辰。他走到一个小的城门时,就有人为他开门,于是他和向导没有受到一点阻碍就出城了。一到城外这两个逃亡者便急速上路,这样,在使臣尚未得悉路德离去之前,即已摆脱了那些想要害他之人的手。撒但和他的爪牙失败了;他们以为在他们掌握之中的人已经离去,好像雀鸟从捕鸟人的网罗里逃脱了。     Notwithstanding Luther had secured a safe-conduct, the Romanists were plotting to seize and imprison him. His friends urged that as it was useless for him to prolong his stay, he should return to Wittenberg without delay, and that the utmost caution should be observed in order to conceal his intentions. He accordingly left Augsburg before day-break, on horseback, accompanied only by a guide furnished him by the magistrate. With many forebodings he secretly made his way through the dark and silent streets of the city. Enemies, vigilant and cruel, were plotting his destruction. Would he escape the snares prepared for him? Those were moments of anxiety and earnest prayer. He reached a small gate in the wall of the city. It was opened for him, and with his guide he passed through without hindrance. Once safely outside, the fugitives hastened their flight, and before the legate learned of Luther's departure, he was beyond the reach of his persecutors. Satan and his emissaries were defeated. The man whom they had thought in their power was gone, escaped as a bird from the snare of the fowler. {GC 137.3}
     
52  使臣听见路德已经逃走,不胜惊讶恼怒。他本在处理这个搅扰教会之叛徒的案件上,想借自己所表现的智慧和决心而得到荣誉;但现在他的希望已经落了空。于是他写信给撒克逊的选侯(译者按:选侯即享有选举皇帝之权的诸侯)腓特烈痛斥路德,并要求他把路德送往罗马,或把他逐出撒克逊境。     At the news of Luther's escape the legate was overwhelmed with surprise and anger. He had expected to receive great honor for his wisdom and firmness in dealing with this disturber of the church; but his hope was disappointed. He gave expression to his wrath in a letter to Frederick, the elector of Saxony, bitterly denouncing Luther and demanding that Frederick send the Reformer to Rome or banish him from Saxony. {GC 138.1}
     
53  路德则为自己辩护,主张使臣或教皇应该根据《圣经》来指明他的错误;他以最严肃的方式保证,如果有人能证明他讲的道理是与《圣经》有抵触的,他一定要把这道理撤回。同时他自己因配为这神圣的运动受苦而感谢上帝。     In defense, Luther urged that the legate or the pope show him his errors from the Scriptures, and pledged himself in the most solemn manner to renounce his doctrines if they could be shown to contradict the word of God. And he expressed his gratitude to God that he had been counted worthy to suffer in so holy a cause. {GC 138.2}
     
54  这时选侯对改革运动的道理还没有多少认识,但他对路德的坦白,有力,明晰的言论受到了深刻的印象;所以他决定在人未能证明路德有错之前,他一定要保护他。于是腓特烈答复教皇使臣的要求说:“‘马丁博士既然已经在奥斯堡受过你的审问,你就应当满意了。我们想不到你在尚未使他看出自己的错误之前,就叫他反悔。在我境内的一些博学的人士,没有一位说马丁的教训是不敬虔,反基督教,或邪僻的。’同时腓特烈不肯把路德送到罗马去或驱逐他出境。”(注十九)     The elector had, as yet, little knowledge of the reformed doctrines, but he was deeply impressed by the candor, force, and clearness of Luther's words; and until the Reformer should be proved to be in error, Frederick resolved to stand as his protector. In reply to the legate's demand he wrote: "Since Dr. Martin has appeared before you at Augsburg, you should be satisfied. We did not expect that you would endeavor to make him retract without having convinced him of his errors. None of the learned men in our principality have informed me that Martin's doctrine is impious, anti-christian, or heretical.' The prince refused, moreover, to send Luther to Rome, or to expel him from his states."-- D'Aubigne, b. 4, ch. 10. {GC 138.3}
     
55  选侯看到社会上的风气败坏,道德堕落,很需要一番改革。如果众人能承认并顺从上帝的律法,并受纯正良心的控制,那么,当时所用来遏制并刑罚罪恶的繁杂而费财的行政机构就不需要了。他又看出路德正在努力要达到这个目的,所以他因看到教会里出现这种良好的影响,反倒为之庆幸。     The elector saw that there was a general breaking down of the moral restraints of society. A great work of reform was needed. The complicated and expensive arrangements to restrain and punish crime would be unnecessary if men but acknowledged and obeyed the requirements of God and the dictates of an enlightened conscience. He saw that Luther was laboring to secure this object, and he secretly rejoiced that a better influence was making itself felt in the church. {GC 138.4}
     
56  他看出路德在大学里担任教授也是很成功的。自从这位宗教改革家在威丁堡的旧式建筑的教堂门上贴出他的九十五条条文以来,不过一年,而在“万圣节”来朝拜的人已大为减少了。因此罗马教廷在人数和收入方面不免受到相当的损失,但是这损失却被另一等人所弥补了;这些人来到威丁堡不是为要朝圣或跪拜那里的遗物,乃是到该地的学府来求学。路德的作品已经在各地引起人对《圣经》的兴趣,所以许多学生从德国各地,甚至从其他各国蜂拥到这大学来了。这些青年人于初次远远望到威丁堡时,便“举手赞美上帝,因他已使光明从这城照耀出来,直到最遥远的国家,如同古时从锡安城照耀出来一样。”(注二十)     He saw also that as a professor in the university Luther was eminently successful. Only a year had passed since the Reformer posted his theses on the castle church, yet there was already a great falling off in the number of pilgrims that visited the church at the festival of All Saints. Rome had been deprived of worshipers and offerings, but their place was filled by another class, who now came to Wittenberg, not pilgrims to adore her relics, but students to fill her halls of learning. The writings of Luther had kindled everywhere a new interest in the Holy Scriptures, and not only from all parts of Germany, but from other lands, students flocked to the university. Young men, coming in sight of Wittenberg for the first time, "raised their hands to heaven, and praised God for having caused the light of truth to shine forth from this city, as from Zion in times of old, and whence it spread even to the most distant countries."--Ibid., b. 4, ch. 10. {GC 139.1}
     
57  这时路德还没有完全摆脱罗马教的错谬。但当他继续把《圣经》与教皇的旨令和法律互相参照的时候,他却满心的惊奇。他写道:“我读了教皇的一些通令,……我真不知道教皇究竟是敌基督本身呢,或是敌基督的使者呢?因为这些通令完全侮辱了基督,而把他钉在十字架上了。”(注二一)虽然如此,路德仍是拥护罗马教会的,而且根本没有想到自己会与她脱离关系。     Luther was as yet but partially converted from the errors of Romanism. But as he compared the Holy Oracles with the papal decrees and constitutions, he was filled with wonder. "I am reading," he wrote, "the decrees of the pontiffs, and . . . I do not know whether the pope is antichrist himself, or his apostle, so greatly is Christ misrepresented and crucified in them."--Ibid., b. 5, ch. 1. Yet at this time Luther was still a supporter of the Roman Church, and had no thought that he would ever separate from her communion. {GC 139.2}
     
58  宗教改革家的作品和他的道理已经传布到基督教世界的每一个国家。这工作传到了瑞士和荷兰。路德的作品也在法国和西班牙传开了。在英国,有人把他的教训当作生命之道领受了。这真理在比利时和意大利也传开了;成千的人从死亡般的麻痹状态中醒悟过来,接受这活泼信仰的喜乐和指望。     The Reformer's writings and his doctrine were extending to every nation in Christendom. The work spread to Switzerland and Holland. Copies of his writings found their way to France and Spain. In England his teachings were received as the word of life. To Belgium and Italy also the truth had extended. Thousands were awakening from their deathlike stupor to the joy and hope of a life of faith.
     
59  路德对罗马教廷的批评使教廷越来越忿怒了,以致路德的一些狂妄的仇敌,甚至于罗马教大学里的教授都声称,什么人杀死这叛逆的僧侣,并不算为有罪。有一天,一个陌生人身上暗藏着手枪前来问这位宗教改革家,他怎么敢只身独行。路德回答说:“我是在上帝手中的。他是我的力量和盾牌,人能把我怎么样呢?”那陌生人听到这话,便惊恐万状,面如死灰,立即逃跑了,好像从天使面前躲去一样。     Rome became more and more exasperated by the attacks of Luther, and it was declared by some of his fanatical opponents, even by doctors in Catholic universities, that he who should kill the rebellious monk would be without sin. One day a stranger, with a pistol hidden under his cloak, approached the Reformer and inquired why he went thus alone. "I am in God's hands," answered Luther. "He is my strength and my shield. What can man do unto me?"--Ibid., b. 6, ch. 2. Upon hearing these words, the stranger turned pale and fled away as from the presence of the angels of heaven. {GC 140.1}
     
60  罗马教廷坚决要除灭路德,但上帝作了他的保障。他的教训已经到处传开──“在农民的茅屋里,在修道院中,在贵族的堡垒和各地大学里,以及王的宫廷内;”(注二二)同时在各处都有高贵的人士起来支持他。     Rome was bent upon the destruction of Luther; but God was his defense. His doctrines were heard everywhere--"in cottages and convents, . . . in the castles of the nobles, in the universities, and in the palaces of kings;" and noble men were rising on every hand to sustain his efforts.--Ibid., b. 6, ch. 2. {GC 140.2}
     
61  约在此时,路德读到胡斯的一些作品,并发现他自己所设法提倡并教导的因信称义的伟大真理,也是那位波希米亚的改革家所持守的。于是他惊叹道:“保罗,奥古斯汀和我本人在无意之中都作了胡斯一派的人啊!”他又说:“谁知早一百年这真理已经有人传过了,不幸它竟被人烧掉!上帝将来一定要同世人算这一笔账啊!”(注二三)     It was about this time that Luther, reading the works of Huss, found that the great truth of justification by faith, which he himself was seeking to uphold and teach, had been held by the Bohemian Reformer. "We have all," said Luther, "Paul, Augustine, and myself, been Hussites without knowing it!" "God will surely visit it upon the world," he continued, "that the truth was preached to it a century ago, and burned!"--Wylie, b. 6. ch. 1 {GC 140.3}
     
62  路德写了一封信给德国的皇帝和诸侯,为宗教改革运动辩护;信中论到教皇说:“这个自命为基督的代理人竟敢如此铺张扬厉,甚至其富丽堂皇的场面决非任何皇帝所能及,诚足令人痛恨。这样的人象不象贫穷的耶稣或谦卑的彼得呢?他们竟说教皇是全世界的主!而他所自命代替的基督却说:‘我的国不属这世界。’难道一个代理人所统治的区域可以超出他主人所统治的范围么?”(注二四)     In an appeal to the emperor and nobility of Germany in behalf of the reformation of Christianity, Luther wrote concerning the pope: "It is a horrible thing to behold the man who styles himself Christ's vicegerent, displaying a magnificence that no emperor can equal. Is this being like the poor Jesus, or the humble Peter? He is, say they, the lord of the world! But Christ, whose vicar he boasts of being, has said, 'My kingdom is not of this world.' Can the dominions of a vicar extend beyond those of his superior?"-- D'Aubigne, b. 6, ch. 3. {GC 140.4}
     
63  他论到大学问题,这样写道:“我深恐各地大学若不殷勤努力解释《圣经》,并把它的真理铭刻在青年人的心上,这些机关就要变成地狱的门户了。我劝众人不可把自己的孩子送到一个不以《圣经》为至上的学校内。一个学校里的人若不是经常在研究《圣经》,那学校至终必要渐渐腐化。”(注二五)     He wrote thus of the universities: "I am much afraid that the universities will prove to be the great gates of hell, unless they diligently labor in explaining the Holy Scriptures, and engraving them in the hearts of youth. I advise no one to place his child where the Scriptures do not reign paramount. Every institution in which men are not unceasingly occupied with the word of God must become corrupt."-- Ibid., b. 6, ch. 3. {GC 140.5}
     
64  这个劝告很快就传遍德国,并在众人身上起了很大的作用。全国都振奋起来了,而且成群的人都起来拥护宗教改革运动。路德的敌人渴欲复仇,故催促教皇采取决定性的措施来对付他。于是就有命令下来,路德的教训必须立即予以制裁。他给路德和他的同人六十天的宽限,如果他们在期满之后尚未反悔,则必被开除教籍。     This appeal was rapidly circulated throughout Germany and exerted a powerful influence upon the people. The whole nation was stirred, and multitudes were roused to rally around the standard of reform. Luther's opponents, burning with a desire for revenge, urged the pope to take decisive measures against him. It was decreed that his doctrines should be immediately condemned. Sixty days were granted the Reformer and his adherents, after which, if they did not recant, they were all to be excommunicated. {GC 141.1}
     
65  那是宗教改革运动一个可怕的危机。几百年来,罗马教的开除处分很足以使有权力的君王惊怖,并曾使强大的帝国瓦解。凡受到这样处分的人,普遍地为人所厌恶,所畏避;他们为社会所共弃,被视为毫无法律的保障,被追逼,受残害,以致消灭。路德对于那将要落在头上的暴风雨是可以料想得到的;但他一点没有动摇,只以基督为他的依靠和盾牌。他具有殉道的信心和勇敢,并写道:“将来要发生什么事,我不知道,也不必知道。……这次的打击尽管来吧,我是毫无惧怕的。若不是天父旨意许可的话,就是一片叶子也不能落在地上,他岂不更要顾念我们么?为‘道’殉身真算不得什么,因为那成了肉身的‘道’自己已经死过了。我们若与他同死,也必与他同活;而且我们既经过了他所预先经过的事,他在哪里,我们也要在哪里,并且要永远与他同在。”(注二六)     That was a terrible crisis for the Reformation. For centuries Rome's sentence of excommunication had struck terror to powerful monarchs; it had filled mighty empires with woe and desolation. Those upon whom its condemnation fell were universally regarded with dread and horror; they were cut off from intercourse with their fellows and treated as outlaws, to be hunted to extermination. Luther was not blind to the tempest about to burst upon him; but he stood firm, trusting in Christ to be his support and shield. With a martyr's faith and courage he wrote: "What is about to happen I know not, nor do I care to know. . . . Let the blow light where it may, I am without fear. Not so much as a leaf falls, without the will of our Father. How much rather will He care for us! It is a light thing to die for the Word, since the Word which was made flesh hath Himself died. If we die with Him, we shall live with Him; and passing through that which He has passed through before us, we shall be where He is and dwell with Him forever."--Ibid., 3d London ed., Walther, 1840, b. 6, ch. 9. {GC 141.2}
     
66  及至教皇的敕令交给路德时,他说道:“因为它是不虔敬,悖谬的,我鄙视,我要攻击它。……它所制裁的乃是基督自己。……我因配为这最神圣的运动受苦而欢喜。现在我已经感到更兴奋的自由在我心里,因为我已确知教皇就是那‘敌基督的’,而且教皇的宝座就是撒但的宝座。”(注二七)     When the papal bull reached Luther, he said: "I despise and attack it, as impious, false. . . . It is Christ Himself who is condemned therein. . . . I rejoice in having to bear such ills for the best of causes. Already I feel greater liberty in my heart; for at last I know that the pope is antichrist, and that his throne is that of Satan himself."--D'Aubigne, b. 6, ch. 9. {GC 141.3}
     
67  但罗马教廷的敕令不是不起作用的。牢狱,酷刑和刀剑,毕竟是有力的武器,足以强逼人们服从。所以许多懦弱迷信之人一听到教皇的敕令,就震惊不已;虽然众人普遍地同情路德,但也有许多人觉得为改革运动牺牲性命还是不值得的。由各方面的迹象看来,似乎这宗教改革家的运动很快就要结束了。

 

    Yet the mandate of Rome was not without effect. Prison, torture, and sword were weapons potent to enforce obedience. The weak and superstitious trembled before the decree of the pope; and while there was general sympathy for Luther, many felt that life was too dear to be risked in the cause of reform. Everything seemed to indicate that the Reformer's work was about to close. {GC 142.1}
     
68  可是路德依然无所畏惧。罗马教廷已经把她的咒诅堆在路德头上,而全世界也都在观望着,确信路德一定要被消灭,或被迫让步。但路德却以非常的毅力把罗马的裁判反控到罗马教廷自己身上,并公开宣布他脱离罗马教的决心。路德当着一群学生,教师和许多市民,将教皇的敕令,教会的法规,和拥戴教皇的著作,一概丢在火里焚烧。他说:“我的敌人曾焚烧我的书,借此在一般人民心中破坏真理的声誉,并伤损他们的心灵;故此我也焚烧他们的书籍。一场正式的战争已经开始了。以往我不过是和教皇争一日之长罢了。现在我是奉上帝的名开始这工作,而这工作不必靠我,却要借上帝的大能胜利完成。”(注二八)     But Luther was fearless still. Rome had hurled her anathemas against him, and the world looked on, nothing doubting that he would perish or be forced to yield. But with terrible power he flung back upon herself the sentence of condemnation and publicly declared his determination to abandon her forever. In the presence of a crowd of students, doctors, and citizens of all ranks Luther burned the pope's bull, with the canon laws, the decretals, and certain writings sustaining the papal power. "My enemies have been able, by burning my books," he said, "to injure the cause of truth in the minds of the common people, and destroy their souls; for this reason I consumed their books in return. A serious struggle has just begun. Hitherto I have been only playing with the pope. I began this work in God's name; it will be ended without me, and by His might." --Ibid., b. 6, ch. 10. {GC 142.2}
     
69  对于那一些讥诮他运动势力弱小的敌人,路德回答说:“谁敢说上帝没有拣选并呼召我呢?谁敢说他们蔑视我不是蔑视上帝呢?摩西是单独离开埃及的;以利亚在亚哈作王时也是孤独一人;以赛亚独自在耶路撒冷;以西结一人在巴比伦……上帝从来没有拣选大祭司或任何身价高贵的人作他的先知;却常拣选卑微而被人轻视的人们,有一次竟拣选一个牧羊人阿摩斯。在每一个时代,圣徒都有责任冒着性命的危险去责备一些有名望有势力的君王,诸侯,祭司,和所谓智慧人。……我不说我是一个先知;但我说他们正应当因我只是单独一个人,而他们却有许多人而惧怕。因为我确知我有上帝的道,而他们却没有呢。”(注二九)     To the reproaches of his enemies who taunted him with the weakness of his cause, Luther answered: "Who knows if God has not chosen and called me, and if they ought not to fear that, by despising me, they despise God Himself? Moses was alone at the departure from Egypt; Elijah was alone in the reign of King Ahab; Isaiah alone in Jerusalem; Ezekiel alone in Babylon. . . . God never selected as a prophet either the high priest or any other great personage; but ordinarily He chose low and despised men, once even the shepherd Amos. In every age, the saints have had to reprove the great, kings, princes, priests, and wise men, at the peril of their lives. . . . I do not say that I am a prophet; but I say that they ought to fear precisely because I am alone and that they are many. I am sure of this, that the word of God is with me, and that it is not with them."--Ibid., b. 6, ch. 10. {GC 142.3}
     
70  虽然如此,路德之最后决定脱离罗马教会,也不是没有经过一番艰苦的奋斗的。约在此时,他写道:“我每天深深感觉到要摆脱童年时期所养成的偏见是多么困难。唉,我虽然有《圣经》支持着我,但我每想只有我一个人反抗教皇,并且必须提出充足的理由说明他是敌基督者,我是受了多大的痛苦啊!我内心的痛苦是多么剧烈啊!我多次悲愤地拿罗马教派的人所常质问我的话问自己说:‘只有你一人是有智慧的么?难道别人都错了么?如果最后证明是你错了,而你竟使这许多人都陷入你的错误里以致永远灭亡,你将要怎样呢?’我就是这样同自己和撒但争战,直到基督用他绝无错误的话坚固了我的信心。”(注三十)     Yet it was not without a terrible struggle with himself that Luther decided upon a final separation from the church. It was about this time that he wrote: "I feel more and more every day how difficult it is to lay aside the scruples which one has imbibed in childhood. Oh, how much pain it has caused me, though I had the Scriptures on my side, to justify it to myself that I should dare to make a stand alone against the pope, and hold him forth as antichrist! What have the tribulations of my heart not been! How many times have I not asked myself with bitterness that question which was so frequent on the lips of the papists: 'Art thou alone wise? Can everyone else be mistaken? How will it be, if, after all, it is thyself who art wrong, and who art involving in thy error so many souls, who will then be eternally damned?' 'Twas so I fought with myself and with Satan, till Christ, by His own infallible word, fortified my heart against these doubts."--Martyn, pages 372, 373. {GC 143.1}
     
71  教皇曾威胁路德说,他若不反悔就要被开除教籍,现在这威胁果然实现了。有新的敕令传来,宣布最后决定将这位改革家逐出罗马教会,并声明他是上天所咒诅的,同时把一切接受路德教训的人都列在同样的咒诅之下。这样,这场大争战就正式开始了。     The pope had threatened Luther with excommunication if he did not recant, and the threat was now fulfilled. A new bull appeared, declaring the Reformer's final separation from the Roman Church, denouncing him as accursed of Heaven, and including in the same condemnation all who should receive his doctrines. The great contest had been fully entered upon. {GC 143.2}
     
72  凡上帝用来传讲适合于当代之警告的人,都是要遭到反对的。在路德的时代有合乎那个时代的信息,是在那个时代显为特别重要的真理;照样,上帝也有现代的真理要传给现代的教会。那位随己意行作万事的主,乐于把一些人放在不同的境遇之中,并将一些适合于他们生活环境和特殊情形的任务交付他们。如果他们能重视上帝所给他们的亮光,就必有更广大的真理园地启示给他们。可是今日大多数的人并不比那些反对路德的罗马教徒更欢迎真理。现今像古时一样,人还是轻易接受人的理论和遗传而不接受上帝的话。那些宣传现代真理的人不要想自己能比早年的改革家更受世人的欢迎。真理与谬论,基督与撒但之间的战争将要愈演愈烈,直到这世界历史的末了。     Opposition is the lot of all whom God employs to present truths specially applicable to their time. There was a present truth in the days of Luther,--a truth at that time of special importance; there is a present truth for the church today. He who does all things according to the counsel of His will has been pleased to place men under various circumstances and to enjoin upon them duties peculiar to the times in which they live and the conditions under which they are placed. If they would prize the light given them, broader views of truth would be opened before them. But truth is no more desired by the majority today than it was by the papists who opposed Luther. There is the same disposition to accept the theories and traditions of men instead of the word of God as in former ages. Those who present the truth for this time should not expect to be received with greater favor than were earlier reformers. The great controversy between truth and error, between Christ and Satan, is to increase in intensity to the close of this world's history. {GC 143.3}
     
73  耶稣对他的门徒说:“你们若属世界,世界必爱属自己的;只因你们不属世界,乃是我从世界中拣选了你们,所以世界就恨你们。你们要记念我从前对你们所说的话,仆人不能大于主人。他们若逼迫了我,也要逼迫你们;若遵守了我的话,也要遵守你们的话。”(约15:19,20)另一方面,我们的主又明说:“人都说你们好的时候,你们就有祸了!因为他们的祖宗待假先知也是这样。”(路6:26)这世界的灵与基督的灵今日既与往时一样的不协调,所以凡宣讲上帝纯正之道的人,现今也不会比从前更受欢迎。反对真理的方式或许要改变,而且那敌视真理的仇恨可能不比从前那么露骨,但那同样的仇恨必然是存在的。而且终必显露出来,直到末时。     Said Jesus to His disciples: "If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you. Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his Lord. If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept My saying, they will keep yours also." John 15:19, 20. And on the other hand our Lord declared plainly: "Woe unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers to the false prophets." Luke 6:26. The spirit of the world is no more in harmony with the spirit of Christ today than in earlier times, and those who preach the word of God in its purity will be received with no greater favor now than then. The forms of opposition to the truth may change, the enmity may be less open because it is more subtle; but the same antagonism still exists and will be manifested to the end of time. {GC 144.1}
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* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
回复 过路人会员 的评论
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037
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* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037