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善恶之争

第八章 真理的战士

[日期:2005-09-25] 来源:使命中华 福音中国  作者:怀爱伦 著 [字体: ]
【内容导航】
导言 第一章 世界命运的预测 第二章 殉道者的信心
第三章 灵性的黑暗时代 第四章 忠贞的擎光者 第五章 宗教改革的晨星
第六章 两位殉道英雄 第七章 徘徊歧路的路德马丁 第八章 真理的战士
第九章 瑞士的改革运动 第十章 改革运动的进展 第十一章 诸侯的抗议
第十二章 法国的改革运动 第十三章 尼德兰和斯干的那维亚 第十四章 真理在英国的进展
第十五章 《圣经》与法国革命 第十六章 清教徒的追求自由 第十七章 黎明的曙光
第十八章 一个重要的预言 第十九章 失望中的希望 第二十章 普世的宗教奋兴
第二十一章 拒绝真理的后果 第二十二章 预言的应验 第二十三章 洁净圣所
第二十四章 作中保的耶稣基督 第二十五章 预言中的美国 第二十六章 最后的改革运动
第二十七章 真悔改的必要 第二十八章 查案审判 第二十九章 罪恶及痛苦的起源
第三十章 人类的大敌 第三十一章 邪灵的工作 第三十二章 撒但的罗网
第三十三章 永生的奥秘 第三十四章 招魂术 第三十五章 罗马教廷的策略
第三十六章 迫近的争斗 第三十七章 我们唯一的保障 第三十八章 最后的警告
第三十九章 大艰难的时期 第四十章 上帝的子民蒙拯救 第四十一章 全地荒凉
第四十二章 善恶之争的结束 附录
真理的战士     Luther Before the Diet
     
01  德国新皇查理第五即位,罗马的使臣急忙前来祝贺,并劝诱皇帝用他的权力来镇压宗教改革运动。在另一方面,撒克逊选侯因查理获得皇位而对他的感激,便请求查理在尚未审问路德之前,不要采取任何干涉的行动。德皇因此感到烦恼,进退两难。他如果不定路德的死罪,罗马教徒们是绝不会满意的。但选侯曾坚决地声明:“皇上或任何别人都还没有向他证明路德的著作已被驳倒了;”因此,他请求“德皇发护照给学者路德,使他可以在博学,敬虔,和公正的法官所组成的审判厅上为自己辩护。”(注一)     A new emperor, Charles V, had ascended the throne of Germany, and the emissaries of Rome hastened to present their congratulations and induce the monarch to employ his power against the Reformation. On the other hand, the elector of Saxony, to whom Charles was in great degree indebted for his crown, entreated him to take no step against Luther until he should have granted him a hearing. The emperor was thus placed in a position of great perplexity and embarrassment. The papists would be satisfied with nothing short of an imperial edict sentencing Luther to death. The elector had declared firmly that "neither his imperial majesty nor any other person had shown that Luther's writings had been refuted;" therefore he requested "that Dr. Luther should be furnished with a safe-conduct, so that he might appear before a tribunal of learned, pious, and impartial judges."--D'Aubigne, b. 6, ch. 11. {GC 145.1}
     
02  查理即位不久,便决定在俄姆斯召开德国议会,这件事引起了各派人士的注意。在这次议会上将要讨论重大的政治问题;德国的诸侯也将在这个大会上第一次会见他们青年的皇帝。罗马教和政府的重要人物从全国各地而来。出身贵胄,有权有势,在世袭权利方面不容人侵犯的封建领主们;在地位和权力上满有优越感的尊贵主教们;彬彬有礼的爵士和他们武装的侍从;以及从国外远方各地前来的使节──都聚集在俄姆斯。然而在这一次大会上,众人所最感兴趣的还是那撒克逊的改革家的问题。     The attention of all parties was now directed to the assembly of the German states which convened at Worms soon after the accession of Charles to the empire. There were important political questions and interests to be considered by this national council; for the first time the princes of Germany were to meet their youthful monarch in deliberative assembly. From all parts of the fatherland had come the dignitaries of church and state. Secular lords, highborn, powerful, and jealous of their hereditary rights; princely ecclesiastics, flushed with their conscious superiority in rank and power; courtly knights and their armed retainers; and ambassadors from foreign and distant lands,--all gathered at Worms. Yet in that vast assembly the subject that excited the deepest interest was the cause of the Saxon Reformer. {GC 145.2}
     
03  查理曾预先指示撒克逊的选侯把路德带来赴会,他也保证他的安全,并应许他可以和那些有相当资格的人士在所争论的问题上进行自由讨论。路德也情愿谒见皇帝。虽然当时他的健康欠佳,但他在信中向选侯表示:“我现在还在病中,若是我不能以健康的身体到俄姆斯去,我也决定要请人把我抬去。因为皇帝既已召我,我深信这就是上帝的呼召。倘若他们要用武力对付我──这是很可能的,因为他们此次要我出面,决非要向我领教。──我只有把这件事交托在主的手中。那在古时拯救火窑中三位以色列青年的上帝如今依然活着,并且掌管万有。如果他的旨意不要救我脱险的话,我的性命也算不得什么。我们只要注意不让福音受到恶人的侮蔑;我们务必为福音流出我们的热血,以免恶人得胜。因为我们若是惧怕,他们就要得胜。我或生或死,哪一样对众人的得救有最大的贡献,不由我来决定。……你要我作什么都可以。……不过要我逃走或反悔是不能的。逃避,我不能;反悔……我更不能。”(注二)     Charles had previously directed the elector to bring Luther with him to the Diet, assuring him of protection, and promising a free discussion, with competent persons, of the questions in dispute. Luther was anxious to appear before the emperor. His health was at this time much impaired; yet he wrote to the elector: "If I cannot go to Worms in good health, I will be carried there, sick as I am. For if the emperor calls me, I cannot doubt that it is the call of God Himself. If they desire to use violence against me, and that is very probable (for it is not for their instruction that they order me to appear), I place the matter in the Lord's hands. He still lives and reigns who preserved the three young men in the burning fiery furnace. If He will not save me, my life is of little consequence. Let us only prevent the gospel from being exposed to the scorn of the wicked, and let us shed our blood for it, for fear they should triumph. It is not for me to decide whether my life or my death will contribute most to the salvation of all. . . . You may expect everything from me. . . except flight and recantation. Fly I cannot, and still less retract."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 1. {GC 146.1}
     
04  当路德要来出席议会的消息在俄姆斯传开之时,这消息就引起了普遍的兴奋。受命负责处理这个案件的教皇使节亚利安德非常震惊忿怒。他看出将来这事的结果对教皇有极大的不利。因为皇帝若重新审问教皇所已判决的案件,那就是对教皇至尊权威的一种蔑视。再者,他惟恐路德的口才和有力的辩证,可能使许多诸侯不再支持教皇。因此,他极其迫切陈词地向查理抗议,反对路德到俄姆斯来。正在此时,教皇开除路德教籍的通令已经公布;再加上这次教皇使节的反对,皇帝终于屈服了。他便写信给撒克逊的选侯说,路德若不反悔,他必须留在威丁堡。     As the news was circulated at Worms that Luther was to appear before the Diet, a general excitement was created. Aleander, the papal legate to whom the case had been specially entrusted, was alarmed and enraged. He saw that the result would be disastrous to the papal cause. To institute inquiry into a case in which the pope had already pronounced sentence of condemnation would be to cast contempt upon the authority of the sovereign pontiff. Furthermore, he was apprehensive that the eloquent and powerful arguments of this man might turn away many of the princes from the cause of the pope. He therefore, in the most urgent manner, remonstrated with Charles against Luther's appearance at Worms. About this time the bull declaring Luther's excommunication was published; and this, coupled with the representations of the legate, induced the emperor to yield. He wrote to the elector that if Luther would not retract, he must remain at Wittenberg. {GC 146.2}
     
05  亚利安德对于这次的胜利并不满足,更尽所有的权力和伎俩促使大会定路德的罪。他便小题大作的极力催促诸侯、教长、和其他到会的人注意这事;并控诉路德犯了“煽乱、叛教、不敬虔和亵渎的罪。”但他所表现的这种激烈忿怒的态度,清楚地显明他是被怎样的一种精神所支配。一般人的评论乃是说:“他的动机并非是由于对宗教的热忱,而是出于仇恨和报复的心。”(注三)议会的大多数人因而更格外同情于路德的主张了。     Not content with this victory, Aleander labored with all the power and cunning at his command to secure Luther's condemnation. With a persistence worthy of a better cause, he urged the matter upon the attention of princes, prelates, and other members of the assembly, accusing the Reformer of "sedition, rebellion, impiety, and blasphemy." But the vehemence and passion manifested by the legate revealed too plainly the spirit by which he was actuated. "He is moved by hatred and vengeance," was the general remark, "much more than by zeal and piety."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 1. The majority of the Diet were more than ever inclined to regard Luther's cause with favor. {GC 147.1}
     
06  亚利安德加倍的努力催促皇帝要尽力协助执行教皇的命令。但根据德国的律法,这件事情若得不到诸侯的同意是不能执行的;结果,皇帝终于因亚利安德的恳求不已而让他向议会陈述他的意见。“那是这个使臣最骄傲的一天。这是一次极大的会议,而所进行的工作却是更加的伟大。亚利安德将要为罗马教会──众教会之母和主妇──而辩护;”他要在基督教世界各国的代表面前为所谓彼得的教权而辩护。“他具有演讲的天才,挺身出现于这个伟大的场面。这也是上帝的旨意,要在罗马教廷被否定之前,先让她派出一个最有力的演说家,在这庄严的议会上为她辩护。”(注四)那些同情改革家的人带着疑惧的心情,惟恐亚利安德的演说将要发生影响。撒克逊的选侯没有出席,但他曾指派他的几个议员出席,记录罗马教皇使节这一次的演说。     With redoubled zeal Aleander urged upon the emperor the duty of executing the papal edicts. But under the laws of Germany this could not be done without the concurrence of the princes; and, overcome at last by the legate's importunity, Charles bade him present his case to the Diet. "It was a proud day for the nuncio. The assembly was a great one: the cause was even greater. Aleander was to plead for Rome, . . . the mother and mistress of all churches." He was to vindicate the princedom of Peter before the assembled principalities of Christendom. "He had the gift of eloquence, and he rose to the greatness of the occasion. Providence ordered it that Rome should appear and plead by the ablest of her orators in the presence of the most august of tribunals, before she was condemned." --Wylie, b. 6, ch. 4. With some misgivings those who favored the Reformer looked forward to the effect of Aleander's speech. The elector of Saxony was not present, but by his direction some of his councilors attended to take notes of the nuncio's address.
     
07  亚利安德尽他学识和口才的能力去推翻真理。他提出一连串的罪状,控诉路德为教会和国家,死人和活人,修道士和平民,议会和平信徒的公敌。他声称:“路德一人所传的谬论已足使十万个叛教徒被处火刑。”     With all the power of learning and eloquence, Aleander set himself to overthrow the truth. Charge after charge he hurled against Luther as an enemy of the church and the state, the living and the dead, clergy and laity, councils and private Christians. "In Luther's errors there is enough," he declared, to warrant the burning of "a hundred thousand heretics." {GC 148.1}
     
08  最后,他竭力对那些接受改革信仰的人进行侮蔑:“这些路德派的人是些什么东西?──一群傲慢的文学家,腐化的修道士,放荡的僧侣们,无知的律法师和堕落的贵族,以及他们所诱惑的平民。我们罗马教会无论在人数,才能,和权势方面,都是何等的优越!这个伟大的大会若能一致通过一个法令,就必能使愚昧的人明白真理,鲁莽的人受到警告,动摇的人站稳立场,懦弱的人得到力量。”(注五)     In conclusion he endeavored to cast contempt upon the adherents of the reformed faith: "What are all these Lutherans? A crew of insolent pedagogues, corrupt priests, dissolute monks, ignorant lawyers, and degraded nobles, with the common people whom they have misled and perverted. How far superior to them is the Catholic party in number, ability, and power! A unanimous decree from this illustrious assembly will enlighten the simple, warn the imprudent, decide the waverers, and give strength to the weak." --D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 3. {GC 148.2}
     
09  历代提倡真理的人一向是被这种武器所攻击的。在今天,人还是用这同样的论据来攻击讲解《圣经》中正直和诚实的教训而反对谬论的人。那些喜爱世俗的宗教人士大声说:“这些传新道理的是些什么人?他们是一小撮不学无术的贫民阶级。他们还自称持有真理,是上帝的选民呢。他们是因无知受骗了。而我们的教会无论在人数或势力方面,都是何等的优越!在我们中间伟大而有学问的人是何等的多!在我们一边的权势又是何等的大!”这样的说法在属世的人听来是很有力的;可是正如在改革家路德的日子一样,它依然不能成立。     With such weapons the advocates of truth in every age have been attacked. The same arguments are still urged against all who dare to present, in opposition to established errors, the plain and direct teachings of God's word. "Who are these preachers of new doctrines?" exclaim those who desire a popular religion. "They are unlearned, few in numbers, and of the poorer class. Yet they claim to have the truth, and to be the chosen people of God. They are ignorant and deceived. How greatly superior in numbers and influence is our church! How many great and learned men are among us! How much more power is on our side!" These are the arguments that have a telling influence upon the world; but they are no more conclusive now than in the days of the Reformer. {GC 148.3}
     
10  宗教改革运动并没有像许多人所想象的一样,随路德而终止。改革运动必要继续发展,直到世界历史的结束。路德固然有一番伟大的工作要作──就是把上帝所赐给他的光反照给别人;然而他并没有得到所要赐给世界的全部真光。从那时到现今,有新的亮光继续照在《圣经》上,有新的真理不断地提示出来。     The Reformation did not, as many suppose, end with Luther. It is to be continued to the close of this world's history. Luther had a great work to do in reflecting to others the light which God had permitted to shine upon him; yet he did not receive all the light which was to be given to the world. From that time to this, new light has been continually shining upon the Scriptures, and new truths have been constantly unfolding. {GC 148.4}
     
11  教皇使节的演说给议会一个深刻的印象。当时没有路德在场,用《圣经》中清晰而折服人心的真理去驳倒这个教皇的发言人。当时也没有人为路德作任何辩护。大会倒有一个普遍的趋势,不但要定路德的罪,并且要制裁他所讲的教训,而且若是可能的话,还要根本铲除这个异端。罗马教廷已经得到一个最有利的机会为自己辩护。她所能用来为自己争辩的话都已经说尽了。但这个表面上的胜利乃是失败的征兆。从此以后,当真理与谬论公开作战的时候,此二者相形之下就越发明显。从那一天起,罗马教廷就要失去她先前稳固的地位了。     The legate's address made a deep impression upon the Diet. There was no Luther present, with the clear and convincing truths of God's word, to vanquish the papal champion. No attempt was made to defend the Reformer. There was manifest a general disposition not only to condemn him and the doctrines which he taught, but if possible to uproot the heresy. Rome had enjoyed the most favorable opportunity to defend her cause. All that she could say in her own vindication had been said. But the apparent victory was the signal of defeat. Henceforth the contrast between truth and error would be more clearly seen, as they should take the field in open warfare. Never from that day would Rome stand as secure as she had stood. {GC 149.1}
     
12  议会中的大多数议员固然都毫不犹豫地准备把路德交给罗马教廷去任意惩处,但也有许多人看出教会内部所存在着的腐败而大不以为然,并希望制止教会当局的腐化与贪财所造成的种种弊端,因为这些弊端曾危害德国人民不浅。     While most of the members of the Diet would not have hesitated to yield up Luther to the vengeance of Rome, many of them saw and deplored the existing depravity in the church, and desired a suppression of the abuses suffered by the German people in consequence of the corruption and greed of the hierarchy.
     
13  教皇使节方才对教皇的“仁政”作了最有利的叙述。而正在此时,主的灵感动了议会中的一个议员,将教皇专制的恶影响暴露无遗。一位撒克逊的公爵乔治带着高尚而坚决的态度在这个贵族所组成的大会上站了起来,他非常正确地逐一列举了教皇的种种欺诈和令人憎恶的事,以及其悲惨的结果。他最后说道:──       The legate had presented the papal rule in the most favorable light. Now the Lord moved upon a member of the Diet to give a true delineation of the effects of papal tyranny. With noble firmness, Duke George of Saxony stood up in that princely assembly and specified with terrible exactness the deceptions and abominations of popery, and their dire results. In closing he said: {GC 149.2}
     
14  “以上所叙述的,还不过是罗马教廷的许多弊端中几件罪恶昭彰的事实。他毫无羞耻地只知道一个目的就是钱!钱!钱!以致连那些本应宣扬真理的人也变得满口谎言,何况这些行为不仅为教廷当局所默许,而且还要予以奖励──因为他们的谎言说得越夸大,所得的酬报也越丰厚。从这个肮脏的源头,流出了许许多多污浊的祸水。淫佚和贪婪双管齐下。……哀哉,那使许多可怜的生灵陷入永久沉沦的,就是这些神父们的罪行。所以我们非进行一番彻底的改革不可。”(注六)     "These are some of the abuses that cry out against Rome. All shame has been put aside, and their only object is . . . money, money, money, . . . so that the preachers who should teach the truth, utter nothing but falsehoods, and are not only tolerated, but rewarded, because the greater their lies, the greater their gain. It is from this foul spring that such tainted waters flow. Debauchery stretches out the hand to avarice. . . . Alas, it is the scandal caused by the clergy that hurls so many poor souls into eternal condemnation. A general reform must be effected."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 4.

 

     
15  像这样对罗马教廷之弊端的有力谴责,就是路德本人也无以复加;又因这位发言人是改革家路德的坚决的敌人,他的话也就更有影响力。     A more able and forcible denunciation of the papal abuses could not have been presented by Luther himself; and the fact that the speaker was a determined enemy of the Reformer's gave greater influence to his words. {GC 150.1}
     
16  如果大会的议员能以看见的话,他们就必看到上帝的使者在他们中间,发出亮光驱散那谬论的黑影,并启发人的思想与心灵来接受真理。有真理和智慧之上帝的大能甚至控制了那些反对宗教改革运动的人,并为那将要完成的伟大工作预备了道路。路德马丁虽没有出席大会,但那比路德更大的主已经向大会发言了。     Had the eyes of the assembly been opened, they would have beheld angels of God in the midst of them, shedding beams of light athwart the darkness of error and opening minds and hearts to the reception of truth. It was the power of the God of truth and wisdom that controlled even the adversaries of the reformation, and thus prepared the way for the great work about to be accomplished. Martin Luther was not present; but the voice of One greater than Luther had been heard in that assembly. {GC 150.2}
     
17  议会立刻指派了一个委员会,要将教廷对于德国人种种的压迫一一加以胪列。结果就有一百零一条呈报给皇帝,请求他立即采取措施,纠正这些弊端。这些请愿者说:“基督教世界的属灵元首周围的种种弊端所造成基督徒的丧亡和抢劫勒索的事是何等可怕!我们有责任防止我们国人的灭亡和耻辱。因此我们很谦卑地,而且也很迫切地求你下令发动一次普遍性的改革运动,并负责推进完成这项工作。(注七)     A committee was at once appointed by the Diet to prepare an enumeration of the papal oppressions that weighed so heavily on the German people. This list, containing a hundred and one specifications, was presented to the emperor, with a request that he would take immediate measures for the correction of these abuses. "What a loss of Christian souls," said the petitioners, "what depredations, what extortions, on account of the scandals by which the spiritual head of Christendom is surrounded! It is our duty to prevent the ruin and dishonor of our people. For this reason we most humbly but most urgently entreat you to order a general reformation, and to undertake its accomplishment."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 4. {GC 150.3}
     
18  这时议会要求准许改革家路德出席议会。虽然亚利安德一再请求,抗议,威胁,皇帝最后还是同意了大会的要求,传令叫路德出席议会。他随同传票还发出一张护照,保证路德可以回到安全的地点。这些都由传令官送往威丁堡,这官同时受命将路德带到俄姆斯来。     The council now demanded the Reformer's appearance before them. Notwithstanding the entreaties, protests, and threats of Aleander, the emperor at last consented, and Luther was summoned to appear before the Diet. With the summons was issued a safe-conduct, ensuring his return to a place of security. These were borne to Wittenberg by a herald, who was commissioned to conduct him to Worms. {GC 150.4}
     
19  路德的朋友们都惊恐张皇起来了。他们深知罗马教廷对路德的成见和恶意,所以惟恐皇帝所发的护照不为人所尊重,他们恳请路德不要冒生命的危险。他回答说:“这些罗马教徒们不要我到俄姆斯去,只想将我定罪处死。但这毫无关系。你们不要为我祈祷,但要为上帝的道祈祷。……基督将要把他的灵赐给我去战胜这些邪道的使者。只要我存活一天,我就要鄙视他们一天;我一定能借着我的死胜过他们。他们在俄姆斯急急地准备着要我反悔。那么我的反悔就是这样:从前我曾说过教皇是基督的代表;现在我要说他是主的敌人,是魔鬼的使徒。”(注八)     The friends of Luther were terrified and distressed. Knowing the prejudice and enmity against him, they feared that even his safe-conduct would not be respected, and they entreated him not to imperil his life. He replied: "The papists do not desire my coming to Worms, but my condemnation and my death. It matters not. Pray not for me, but for the word of God. . . . Christ will give me His Spirit to overcome these ministers of error. I despise them during my life; I shall triumph over them by my death. They are busy at Worms about compelling me to retract; and this shall be my retraction: I said formerly that the pope was Christ's vicar; now I assert that he is our Lord's adversary, and the devil's apostle."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 6. {GC 150.5}
     
20  路德没有独自行走这危险的旅途,除了皇帝使臣以外,还有他的三位最忠实的朋友决心陪他前往。梅兰克吞也急切地希望与他们同行。他的心和路德的心深相契合,他一心想跟他去,若是有必要的话,他不辞下监或受死。但是他的请求被拒绝了。万一路德被害,宗教改革的希望就必须集中在路德的这一个年轻的同工身上。当路德和梅兰克吞分别时,路德说:“倘若我不回来;我的敌人把我处死的话,你务必要继续传道,在真理上站稳。接替我的工作;……只要你的生命得以保存,我的死就算不得什么。”(注九)那些集合前来为路德送行的学生和市民们都为此深受感动。一群热爱福音的人都含泪与路德作别。这位改革家和他的同伴们就此从威丁堡出发了。     Luther was not to make his perilous journey alone. Besides the imperial messenger, three of his firmest friends determined to accompany him. Melanchthon earnestly desired to join them. His heart was knit to Luther's, and he yearned to follow him, if need be, to prison or to death. But his entreaties were denied. Should Luther perish, the hopes of the Reformation must center upon his youthful colaborer. Said the Reformer as he parted from Melanchthon: "If I do not return, and my enemies put me to death, continue to teach, and stand fast in the truth. Labor in my stead. . . . If you survive, my death will be of little consequence."-- Ibid., b. 7, ch. 7. Students and citizens who had gathered to witness Luther's departure were deeply moved. A multitude whose hearts had been touched by the gospel, bade him farewell with weeping. Thus the Reformer and his companions set out from Wittenberg. {GC 151.1}
     
21  他们在旅途中,看出群众有不祥的预感压在心头。在几个市镇里,他们没有受到什么款待。当他们在某处过夜的时候,有一位同情路德的修道士为了表示他对路德的担心起见,就在他面前举起一幅已经殉难的意大利改革家的遗像。第二天,他们就听说路德的著作已在俄姆斯被禁止了。皇帝的使节正在宣布着他的通令,号召人民把被禁止的著作一律送交官府。这时传令官很为路德在大会的安全担心,并以为路德的决心可能已发生动摇,就问路德是否还要继续前进。他回答说:“即使我在每一个城市里都被禁止,我仍要继续前进。”(注十)     On the journey they saw that the minds of the people were oppressed by gloomy forebodings. At some towns no honors were proffered them. As they stopped for the night, a friendly priest expressed his fears by holding up before Luther the portrait of an Italian reformer who had suffered martyrdom. The next day they learned that Luther's writings had been condemned at Worms. Imperial messengers were proclaiming the emperor's decree and calling upon the people to bring the proscribed works to the magistrates. The herald, fearing for Luther's safety at the council, and thinking that already his resolution might be shaken, asked if he still wished to go forward. He answered: "Although interdicted in every city, I shall go on."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 7.
     
22  在艾福市,路德受到了欢迎。当他经过街上时,有许多钦佩他的群众包围了他,这些街道是他从前常常带着乞丐的行囊周游过的。他回到了他从前的修道院小室里,回想自己过去的挣扎,和随之而来的属灵光照,而今这个光已经照射到德国全境了。这里有人请他讲道。原来他是被禁止讲道的,但传令官却准许他讲道,于是这个曾在该修道院充当苦工的“托钵僧”,现在竟登上了讲坛。     At Erfurt, Luther was received with honor. Surrounded by admiring crowds, he passed through the streets that he had often traversed with his beggar's wallet. He visited his convent cell, and thought upon the struggles through which the light now flooding Germany had been shed upon his soul. He was urged to preach. This he had been forbidden to do, but the herald granted him permission, and the friar who had once been made the drudge of the convent, now entered the pulpit. {GC 152.1}
     
23  他向拥挤的会众宣讲基督的话说:“愿你们平安。”他接着说:“哲学家,博士和著作家常设法教训人们如何获得永生,但他们没有成功。现在我要把这永生之道告诉你们。……上帝已经叫一‘人’从死里复活,就是主耶稣基督,使他可以败坏死亡,赎尽罪孽,并关闭地狱的门;这就是救恩的大功。基督已经得胜了!这就是那大喜的信息!我们得救不是靠着自己的功劳,乃是靠着他的功劳。……我们的主耶稣基督说:‘愿你们平安;看我的手!’那就是说,人哪,看,那除去你罪的,救赎你的,并且现在使你有平安的,就是我,也只能是我,这是主说的。”     To a crowded assembly he spoke from the words of Christ, "Peace be unto you." "Philosophers, doctors, and writers," he said, "have endeavored to teach men the way to obtain everlasting life, and they have not succeeded. I will now tell it to you: . . . God has raised one Man from the dead, the Lord Jesus Christ, that He might destroy death, extirpate sin, and shut the gates of hell. This is the work of salvation. . . . Christ has vanquished! this is the joyful news; and we are saved by His work, and not by our own. . . . Our Lord Jesus Christ said, 'Peace be unto you; behold My hands;' that is to say, Behold, O man! it is I, I alone, who have taken away thy sin, and ransomed thee; and now thou hast peace, saith the Lord." {GC 152.2}
     
24  他继续说明一个真正的信仰必须借着一种圣洁的生活表现出来。“上帝既拯救了我们,我们就当谨慎行事,以致上帝能悦纳我们的行为。你是富足的么?就让你的财富去接济穷人的需要。你是贫穷的么?就让你的服务得蒙富足者的悦纳。若是你的劳动仅仅是为了自己,那么你所献给上帝的服务是虚伪的。”(注十一)     He continued, showing that true faith will be manifested by a holy life. "Since God has saved us, let us so order our works that they may be acceptable to Him. Art thou rich? let thy goods administer to the necessities of the poor. Art thou poor? let thy services be acceptable to the rich. If thy labor is useful to thyself alone, the service that thou pretendest to render unto God is a lie."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 7. {GC 152.3}
     
25  众人听得出神了。有生命之粮分给这些饥饿的心灵。基督在众人面前被高举,超过一切教皇,教皇的使臣,皇帝和君王之上。关于路德自己危险的处境,他始终只字不提。他不求自己成为别人思想和同情的目标。他既然沉思并仰望基督,就看不见自己了。他把自己隐藏在那髑髅地之“人”的后面,只求彰显耶稣为罪人的救赎主。     The people listened as if spellbound. The bread of life was broken to those starving souls. Christ was lifted up before them as above popes, legates, emperors, and kings. Luther made no reference to his own perilous position. He did not seek to make himself the object of thought or sympathy. In the contemplation of Christ he had lost sight of self. He hid behind the Man of Calvary, seeking only to present Jesus as the sinner's Redeemer.
     
26  当这位宗教改革家继续前行的时候,各地的人都对他表示深切的关怀。到处有热心的群众拥挤在他周围;许多亲切的声音警告他注意罗马教廷的阴谋。他们说:“他们要把你活活地烧死,把你的身体烧成灰烬,象胡斯约翰一样。”路德回答说:“纵使他们从俄姆斯到威丁堡沿路都点起火来,甚至火焰冲天,我还要奉主的名走过这火焰,勇往前进,站在他们面前;我要进入这个猛兽的口中,打断它的牙齿,承认主耶稣基督。”(注十二)     As the Reformer proceeded on his journey, he was everywhere regarded with great interest. An eager multitude thronged about him, and friendly voices warned him of the purpose of the Romanists. "They will burn you," said some, "and reduce your body to ashes, as they did with John Huss." Luther answered, "Though they should kindle a fire all the way from Worms to Wittenberg, the flames of which reached to heaven, I would walk through it in the name of the Lord; I would appear before them; I would enter the jaws of this behemoth, and break his teeth, confessing the Lord Jesus Christ."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 7. {GC 153.1}
     
27  他快到俄姆斯的消息,引起了很大的骚动。他的朋友为他的安全而发抖;他的敌人也为自己的成败而担心。他们尽力设法劝阻他不要进城。在罗马教徒的布置之下,他们劝他往一位友好的骑士的城堡里去避难。据他们说,在那里一切困难都可以迎刃而解。朋友们为要激起他的恐惧起见,也竭力强调一些威胁着他的危险。但他们一切的努力都失效了。路德依然毫不动摇,说:“即使俄姆斯的魔鬼如屋上的瓦片那么多,我也要去。”(注十三)     The news of his approach to Worms created great commotion. His friends trembled for his safety; his enemies feared for the success of their cause. Strenuous efforts were made to dissuade him from entering the city. At the instigation of the papists he was urged to repair to the castle of a friendly knight, where, it was declared, all difficulties could be amicably adjusted. Friends endeavored to excite his fears by describing the dangers that threatened him. All their efforts failed. Luther, still unshaken, declared: "Even should there be as many devils in Worms as tiles on the housetops, still I would enter it."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 7. {GC 153.2}
     
28  他一到俄姆斯,就有广大的群众齐集在城门口欢迎他。即使銮舆入城时,也没有这么多的群众集合来接驾呢。当时的情绪极为高涨;群众中有人用震颤而悲哀的声音唱出一支送葬的哀歌,警告路德那等待着他的是怎样的厄运。当路德从马车上下来的时候,他说:“上帝必要作我的保障。”     Upon his arrival at Worms, a vast crowd flocked to the gates to welcome him. So great a concourse had not assembled to greet the emperor himself. The excitement was intense, and from the midst of the throng a shrill and plaintive voice chanted a funeral dirge as a warning to Luther of the fate that awaited him. "God will be my defense," said he, as he alighted from his carriage. {GC 153.3}
     
29  那些罗马教徒们原来不相信路德真会冒险来俄姆斯的,他的到达使他们张皇失措了。皇帝立刻招集议员,商讨应该采取什么方针。有一个主教是一个严格的罗马教徒,说:“我们对于这件事已经考虑很久了。愿皇上立即除灭这个人。西基斯孟岂不是把胡斯约翰处了火刑么?我们对一个叛教者并没有义务给他护照,或尊重他的护照。”皇帝说:“不是这样的,我们必须遵守我们的诺言。”(注十四)于是决定这位改革家必要在议会上受审问。     The papists had not believed that Luther would really venture to appear at Worms, and his arrival filled them with consternation. The emperor immediately summoned his councilors to consider what course should be pursued. One of the bishops, a rigid papist, declared: "We have long consulted on this matter. Let your imperial majesty get rid of this man at once. Did not Sigismund cause John Huss to be burnt? We are not bound either to give or to observe the safe-conduct of a heretic." "No," said the emperor, "we must keep our promise."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. It was therefore decided that the Reformer should be heard. {GC 153.4}
     
30  全城的人都急切地要来看这个非常的人物,于是一群前来拜访的人很快就挤满了路德的住所。他最近才生过一次病,而且还没有完全复元;又加上整整两个星期旅途的疲劳;还要准备应付次日的大事,他实在需要安静和休息。但因这些人急于求见,所以路德仅仅休息了几个小时,就有贵族,骑士,修道士和公民们热切地围绕在他的周围。其中有许多贵族曾大胆地要求皇帝进行一个改革宗教弊端的运动,这些人也就是路德所说,“都是被我的福音所释放的。”(注十五)不但朋友,就是敌人也都要来看看这个无畏的修道士;而他竟稳重沉着的接待他们,并庄严地用智慧的言语回答众人。他的态度是坚定而勇敢的。他面黄肌瘦,显出劳苦和疾病的模样,却带着仁慈和喜乐的表情。他的话严肃而诚恳,以致使他有能力,甚至他的敌人也不能完全抗拒。仇敌和友人都满心惊奇。有些人深信有上帝的能力在他身上;另一些人却说:“他身上有鬼附着,”正如古时法利赛人斥基督时所说的一样。     All the city were eager to see this remarkable man, and a throng of visitors soon filled his lodgings. Luther had scarcely recovered from his recent illness; he was wearied from the journey, which had occupied two full weeks; he must prepare to meet the momentous events of the morrow, and he needed quiet and repose. But so great was the desire to see him that he had enjoyed only a few hours' rest when noblemen, knights, priests, and citizens gathered eagerly about him. Among these were many of the nobles who had so boldly demanded of the emperor a reform of ecclesiastical abuses and who, says Luther, "had all been freed by my gospel."--Martyn, page 393. Enemies, as well as friends, came to look upon the dauntless monk; but he received them with unshaken calmness, replying to all with dignity and wisdom. His bearing was firm and courageous. His pale, thin face, marked with the traces of toil and illness, wore a kindly and even joyous expression. The solemnity and deep earnestness of his words gave him a power that even his enemies could not wholly withstand. Both friends and foes were filled with wonder. Some were convinced that a divine influence attended him; others declared, as had the Pharisees concerning Christ: "He hath a devil." {GC 154.1}
     
31  次日,路德被传去参加议会。有皇帝派来的一位官员把他带进大会会所;然而他走到这个地点也是不容易的。每一条路上都挤满了观众,热切地要看这一位胆敢抗拒教皇权威的修道士。     On the following day Luther was summoned to attend the Diet. An imperial officer was appointed to conduct him to the hall of audience; yet it was with difficulty that he reached the place. Every avenue was crowded with spectators eager to look upon the monk who had dared resist the authority of the pope. {GC 154.2}
     
32  当他将要到那些审判他的人面前时,一位年老的将官──身经百战的英雄和蔼地对他说:“可怜的修道士!可怜的修道士!你将要经过一次艰苦的争战,象这样的争战,连我或是别的许多将官们,就是在我们最血腥的战斗中也是从来没有经过的。但如果你的事是正义的,并且你确知它是正义的,你尽管奉上帝的名前进,什么也不要惧怕!上帝决不会丢弃你。”(注十六)     As he was about to enter the presence of his judges, an old general, the hero of many battles, said to him kindly: "Poor monk, poor monk, thou art now going to make a nobler stand than I or any other captains have ever made in the bloodiest of our battles. But if thy cause is just, and thou art sure of it, go forward in God's name, and fear nothing. God will not forsake thee."--D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 154.3}
     
33  最后,路德出席大会了。皇帝坐在宝座上。帝国中的显赫人物都在他的周围。从来没有人出席过比路德马丁这一次必须为自己的信仰作辩护的大会更庄严的会场。“这一次路德之得以向大会讲话,在教皇说来,是一次显著的失败。教皇早已定了路德的罪,而他现在居然又站在大会的审判台前,就这一件事说来,大会实际上已在教皇的权威之上了。教皇早已下禁令管制路德,并且断绝他一切社会的关系;如今皇帝却很郑重地把他传来,并且他又为世界上最庄严的大会所接待。教皇早已禁止他,永远不许他开口讲道,而现在他倒要当着成千来自基督教世界最远地区的听众开口演讲了。可见路德的工作已经发动了一个非常伟大的革命。这时罗马教皇已经开始从他的宝座上倒下来了,而那造成这种羞辱的,乃是一个修道士的言论!”(注十七)     At length Luther stood before the council. The emperor occupied the throne. He was surrounded by the most illustrious personages in the empire. Never had any man appeared in the presence of a more imposing assembly than that before which Martin Luther was to answer for his faith. "This appearance was of itself a signal victory over the papacy. The pope had condemned the man, and he was now standing before a tribunal which, by this very act, set itself above the pope. The pope had laid him under an interdict, and cut him off from all human society; and yet he was summoned in respectful language, and received before the most august assembly in the world. The pope had condemned him to perpetual silence, and he was now about to speak before thousands of attentive hearers drawn together from the farthest parts of Christendom. An immense revolution had thus been effected by Luther's instrumentality. Rome was already descending from her throne, and it was the voice of a monk that caused this humiliation."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 155.1}
     
34  在这个有权力有名气的大会面前,这位出身低微的改革家似乎胆怯而困窘了。有几个诸侯注意到他的情绪,就挨近他,有一位轻轻的向他说:“那杀身体不能杀灵魂的,不要怕他们。”另一位说:“并且你们要为我的缘故,被送到诸侯君王面前,你们父的灵必要将当说的话赐给你们。”这样,基督的话就从世上的伟人口中说出来,在试炼临到的时候加强他仆人的力量。     In the presence of that powerful and titled assembly the lowly born Reformer seemed awed and embarrassed. Several of the princes, observing his emotion, approached him, and one of them whispered: "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul." Another said: "When ye shall be brought before governors and kings for My sake, it shall be given you, by the Spirit of your Father, what ye shall say." Thus the words of Christ were brought by the world's great men to strengthen His servant in the hour of trial. {GC 155.2}
     
35  路德被带到指定的地位,正面对着皇帝的宝座。这个拥挤的大会深沉的寂静下来。随后皇帝的一位大臣站起来,手指着一堆路德的著作,要他答复两个问题,──他是否承认这些著作是他写的,并是否打算撤回他在那些著作中所发表的意见。既将书名宣读完毕,路德就回答说,关于第一个问题,他承认这些著作是他写的。“至于第二个问题,”他说:“我看这个问题有关信仰,灵魂得救,和上帝的道──就是天上地下最伟大,最珍贵的财宝,我若不加思索而贸然回答,未免鲁莽失当。惟恐我所讲的不能满足环境的要求,或者超过真理的要求;这样我就违犯基督所说的:’凡在人面前不认我的,我在我天上的父面前也必不认他。’(太10:33)因为这个缘故,我冒犯地恳求皇上,赐我充足的时间加以思考,使我的答复不致触犯上帝的道。”(注十八)     Luther was conducted to a position directly in front of the emperor's throne. A deep silence fell upon the crowded assembly. Then an imperial officer arose and, pointing to a collection of Luther's writings, demanded that the Reformer answer two questions--whether he acknowledged them as his, and whether he proposed to retract the opinions which he had therein advanced. The titles of the books having been read, Luther replied that as to the first question, he acknowledged the books to be his. "As to the second," he said, "seeing that it is a question which concerns faith and the salvation of souls, and in which the word of God, the greatest and most precious treasure either in heaven or earth, is involved, I should act imprudently were I to reply without reflection. I might affirm less than the circumstance demands, or more than truth requires, and so sin against this saying of Christ: 'Whosoever shall deny Me before men, him will I also deny before My Father which is in heaven.' [Matthew 10:33.] For this reason I entreat your imperial majesty, with all humility, to allow me time, that I may answer without offending against the word of God."-- D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 155.3}
     
36  路德提出这个请求,乃是智慧之举。他使大会看出他行事不是出于情感的冲动。他这样镇静和自制──在他这向来表现自己是勇敢而不肯妥协的一个人,是出乎意料之外的,并且增强了他的力量,使他此后在答复这个问题时,可以表现得慎重而果断,智慧而庄严,以致他的敌人都感到惊奇失望,使他们的傲慢和自大受到斥责了。     In making this request, Luther moved wisely. His course convinced the assembly that he did not act from passion or impulse. Such calmness and self-command, unexpected in one who had shown himself bold and uncompromising, added to his power, and enabled him afterward to answer with a prudence, decision, wisdom, and dignity that surprised and disappointed his adversaries, and rebuked their insolence and pride. {GC 156.1}
     
37  第二天,他必须出席陈述他最后的答复。有一个时候,当他想到那些集合起来反对真理的势力时,他就意志消沉了。他的信心动摇了;他不禁畏惧战栗起来,恐怖使他遭到挫折。在他面前的危险极多;他的敌人似乎即将得胜,黑暗的权势也将要占优势了。有乌云笼罩着他,似乎把他和上帝隔开了。他渴望得着万军之主与他同在的保证。在心灵的痛若中他仆倒了,面伏在地,凄凄艾艾地倾吐出忧伤的呼吁,这呼吁只有上帝能完全了解啊。     The next day he was to appear to render his final answer. For a time his heart sank within him as he contemplated the forces that were combined against the truth. His faith faltered; fearfulness and trembling came upon him, and horror overwhelmed him. Dangers multiplied before him; his enemies seemed about to triumph, and the powers of darkness to prevail. Clouds gathered about him and seemed to separate him from God. He longed for the assurance that the Lord of hosts would be with him. In anguish of spirit he threw himself with his face upon the earth and poured out those broken, heart-rending cries, which none but God can fully understand. {GC 156.2}
     
38  他恳求说:“上帝啊,永在的全能上帝!这个世界是多么可怕啊!看哪,它张口要来吞吃我,而我的信心在你里面又是何等的小。……我倘若只能依靠这世界上的力量──一切都完了。……我最后的时刻已经来到。我的罪案已经定了。……上帝啊!求你帮助我胜过这个世界上的一切智慧。求你成就这事,……唯有你能成就;因为这个工作不是我的,乃是你的。我在这里不能做什么,我无法同这些世界上的伟人争论。……但这个工作是你的。……而且是正义永恒的工作。主啊,帮助我!诚实永不改变的上帝啊!我不依靠任何人。……凡是出于人的,都是动摇不定的;凡是从人来的帮助一定要失败。……你已经拣选我进行这工作。……为了你自己的爱子耶稣基督──我的保障,我的盾牌和我的堡垒的缘故,求你站在我旁边。”(注十九)     "O almighty and everlasting God," he pleaded, "how terrible is this world! Behold, it openeth its mouth to swallow me up, and I have so little trust in Thee. . . . If it is only in the strength of this world that I must put my trust, all is over. . . . My last hour is come, my condemnation has been pronounced. . . . O God, do Thou help me against all the wisdom of the world. Do this, . . . Thou alone; . . . for this is not my work, but Thine. I have nothing to do here, nothing to contend for with these great ones of the world. . . . But the cause is Thine, . . . and it is a righteous and eternal cause. O Lord, help me! Faithful and unchangeable God, in no man do I place my trust. . . . All that is of man is uncertain; all that cometh of man fails. . . . Thou hast chosen me for this work. . . . Stand at my side, for the sake of Thy well-beloved Jesus Christ, who is my defense, my shield, and my strong tower."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 156.3}
     
39  一位全智的上帝使路德认识到自己的危险,使他不致依靠自己的力量,擅自进入险境。那令他挫折的恐怖,并不是因为他畏惧那似乎立刻就要临头的肉体的患难,苦刑,或死亡。他乃是感觉到自己的力量不足以应付这个危机。他惟恐真理要因他的软弱遭受到损失。他如此和上帝较力,并非为他自身的安全,而是为了福音的胜利。这种心灵的痛苦和争战正和以色列夜间在孤寂河边的挣扎一样;而也像以色列一样与神较力得了胜。在他极软弱无力的时候,他的信心紧紧地抓住基督,就是那位大能的拯救者。于是他得到保证,上帝决不让他单独出席大会,这样他就得到了力量。他心里又重新得到了平安,并因上帝让他在国家的君王面前高举上帝的道而感到兴奋。     An all-wise Providence had permitted Luther to realize his peril, that he might not trust to his own strength and rush presumptuously into danger. Yet it was not the fear of personal suffering, a dread of torture or death, which seemed immediately impending, that overwhelmed him with its terror. He had come to the crisis, and he felt his insufficiency to meet it. Through his weakness the cause of truth might suffer loss. Not for his own safety, but for the triumph of the gospel did he wrestle with God. Like Israel's, in that night struggle beside the lonely stream, was the anguish and conflict of his soul. Like Israel, he prevailed with God. In his utter helplessness his faith fastened upon Christ, the mighty Deliverer. He was strengthened with the assurance that he would not appear alone before the council. Peace returned to his soul, and he rejoiced that he was permitted to uplift the word of God before the rulers of the nations. {GC 157.1}
     
40  路德既能坚心依靠上帝,便下手为他前面的争战作准备。他考虑了应怎样答复,检查了自己的著作,并从《圣经》中引证了合适的经文来支持自己的论点。于是他把左手放在展开着的一本《圣经》上,右手向天举起,宣誓:“即使要用他的血来印证他的见证,他也要永久坚守福音,坦然承认他的信仰。”(注二十)     With his mind stayed upon God, Luther prepared for the struggle before him. He thought upon the plan of his answer, examined passages in his own writings, and drew from the Holy Scriptures suitable proofs to sustain his positions. Then, laying his left hand on the Sacred Volume, which was open before him, he lifted his right hand to heaven and vowed "to remain faithful to the gospel, and freely to confess his faith, even should he seal his testimony with his blood."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 157.2}
     
41  当他再被带进议会的时候,他面上没有一点畏惧和不安的表情。他很镇静温和,同时也勇敢而高贵地站在世上的伟人当中,俨然作为上帝的见证人。皇帝的大臣现在要他肯定地答复是否愿意撤回他所讲的道理。路德用一种缓和而谦卑的声调作了答复,既不激昂,又不急躁。他的举止谦恭有礼;同时也表现有信心和喜乐,使会众感到惊奇。     When he was again ushered into the presence of the Diet, his countenance bore no trace of fear or embarrassment. Calm and peaceful, yet grandly brave and noble, he stood as God's witness among the great ones of the earth. The imperial officer now demanded his decision as to whether he desired to retract his doctrines. Luther made his answer in a subdued and humble tone, without violence or passion. His demeanor was diffident and respectful; yet he manifested a confidence and joy that surprised the assembly. {GC 158.1}
     
42  路德说:“皇帝陛下,诸侯爷殿下,敬爱的公爵们,我奉昨日钧旨命于今日晋见,实为万幸;我凭着上帝的怜悯恳求皇上陛下和至尊的诸侯爷,垂听我为我所坚信的公义正直的主张而辩护。如果我在陈词时因下愚而有不合朝廷仪节之处,敬请开恩原宥;因我并非生长在宫廷之中,而是生长在那与世隔绝的修道院内。”(注二一)     "Most serene emperor, illustrious princes, gracious lords," said Luther, "I appear before you this day, in conformity with the order given me yesterday, and by God's mercies I conjure your majesty and your august highnesses to listen graciously to the defense of a cause which I am assured is just and true. If, through ignorance, I should transgress the usages and proprieties of courts, I entreat you to pardon me; for I was not brought up in the palaces of kings, but in the seclusion of a convent."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 158.2}
     
43  他随即论到问题的本身,说到他所出版的书籍种类不同。在有些书里面,他论到信心和善行,关于这些书,就是他的敌人也公认不但无害而且是有益的。如果撤回这些道理,就等于推翻众人所公认的真理。第二类书籍包括一些揭露罗马教的腐败和弊端的写作。撤回这些书籍,就等于加强罗马教庭的专横,暴行,并为许多重大的罪恶开了更大的门户。第三类书籍是攻击那些袒护一些流行的罪恶的个别分子。关于这些,他坦白承认,过去是太激烈而失检。他并不是说自己没有错误;但是连这些书籍他也不能撤回,如果撤回的话,将会使真理的敌人更为明目张胆,他们将要乘机以更大的残酷来压迫上帝的百姓了。     Then, proceeding to the question, he stated that his published works were not all of the same character. In some he had treated of faith and good works, and even his enemies declared them not only harmless but profitable. To retract these would be to condemn truths which all parties confessed. The second class consisted of writings exposing the corruptions and abuses of the papacy. To revoke these works would strengthen the tyranny of Rome and open a wider door to many and great impieties. In the third class of his books he had attacked individuals who had defended existing evils. Concerning these he freely confessed that he had been more violent than was becoming. He did not claim to be free from fault; but even these books he could not revoke, for such a course would embolden the enemies of truth, and they would then take occasion to crush God's people with still greater cruelty.
     
44  他接着又说:“但我不过是一个人,而不是神;所以我要为自己辩护,像基督所作的一样:‘若是我说错了,你们指出我的错来。’……我以上帝的慈悲,恳求皇上陛下和诸侯殿下,要根据先知和使徒的著作证明我的错误。在我明白看出我的错误之后,我就必立刻撤回每一个错误,并愿首先把我的书丢在火里。”     "Yet I am but a mere man, and not God," he continued; "I shall therefore defend myself as Christ did: 'If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil.' . . . By the mercy of God, I conjure you, most serene emperor, and you, most illustrious princes, and all men of every degree, to prove from the writings of the prophets and apostles that I have erred. As soon as I am convinced of this, I will retract every error, and be the first to lay hold of my books and throw them into the fire. {GC 159.1}
     
45  “我刚才所说的,表明我对于我可能遭受的危险已经加以深思熟虑;可是我非但不因这些危险而沮丧,反而大大喜乐,因为我看到今天的福音像古代一样,已经成为磨难和倾轧的缘由。这就是上帝之道的特征与结果。基督说过:‘我来并不是叫地上太平,乃是叫地上动刀兵。’上帝的旨意是奇妙可畏的;你们务要谨慎,免得在试图止息争端时,反而攻击了上帝的圣道,以致招来可怕而难以解救的危险,祸患,和永久的灭亡。……我可以从上帝的教训中举出很多的例子;我可以讲到法老,巴比伦王,或以色列诸王,当他们采取一些似乎极机巧的措施,如利用议会等来巩固自己权力的时候,事实上他们正是在毁灭自己呢。‘上帝发怒,把山翻倒挪移,山并不知觉。’”(注二二)     "What I have just said plainly shows, I hope, that I have carefully weighed and considered the dangers to which I expose myself; but far from being dismayed, I rejoice to see that the gospel is now, as in former times, a cause of trouble and dissension. This is the character, this is the destiny, of the word of God. 'I came not to send peace on earth, but a sword,' said Jesus Christ. God is wonderful and terrible in His counsels; beware lest, by presuming to quench dissensions, you should persecute the holy word of God, and draw down upon yourselves a frightful deluge of insurmountable dangers, of present disasters, and eternal desolation. . . . I might quote many examples from the oracles of God. I might speak of the Pharaohs, the kings of Babylon, and those of Israel, whose labors never more effectually contributed to their own destruction than when they sought by counsels, to all appearance most wise, to strengthen their dominion. 'God removeth mountains, and they know it not.'"--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 159.2}
     
46  路德是用德语讲述的;他们现在要他再用拉丁语重讲一遍。虽然他这时已经相当疲乏,但他还是答应了,他又重新讲了一番,象第一次一样的清楚,有力。这是出于上帝旨意的安排。许多诸侯的心眼既被谬论和迷信所蒙蔽,故未能在路德第一次演说时体会到他辩证的力量;但第二次的演说就使他们清楚地看出他所提出的论点。     Luther had spoken in German; he was now requested to repeat the same words in Latin. Though exhausted by the previous effort, he complied, and again delivered his speech, with the same clearness and energy as at the first. God's providence directed in this matter. The minds of many of the princes were so blinded by error and superstition that at the first delivery they did not see the force of Luther's reasoning; but the repetition enabled them to perceive clearly the points presented.
     
47  那些故意闭眼不看真光,并坚决不受真理感化的人,被路德讲话的能力激怒了。在他讲完之后,议会的代言人便发怒说:“你还没有答复我们所发的问题。……你必须作一个清楚明确的答复。……你究竟撤回还是不撤回?”     Those who stubbornly closed their eyes to the light, and determined not to be convinced of the truth, were enraged at the power of Luther's words. As he ceased speaking, the spokesman of the Diet said angrily: "You have not answered the question put to you. . . . You are required to give a clear and precise answer. . . . Will you, or will you not, retract?" {GC 160.1}
     
48  这位改革家回答说:“至尊陛下和伟大的侯爷既然要我作一个明白,简单,而确切的答复,我的答复就是:我不能将我的信仰交给教皇或是议会去审断,因为很明显的,他们常常犯错误,并且互相矛盾。除非借着《圣经》的明证,或清晰的推理使我信服,除非根据我所引证的经文使我满意,除非使我的良心受到《圣经》的约束,我就不能,也不愿撤回这些著作。因为一个基督徒违背自己的良心是不妥当的。这就是我的立场,此外我别无主张;惟愿上帝帮助我,阿们!”(注二三)     The Reformer answered: "Since your most serene majesty and your high mightinesses require from me a clear, simple, and precise answer, I will give you one, and it is this: I cannot submit my faith either to the pope or to the councils, because it is clear as the day that they have frequently erred and contradicted each other. Unless therefore I am convinced by the testimony of Scripture or by the clearest reasoning, unless I am persuaded by means of the passages I have quoted, and unless they thus render my conscience bound by the word of God, I cannot and I will not retract, for it is unsafe for a Christian to speak against his conscience. Here I stand, I can do no other; may God help me. Amen." --Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 160.2}
     
49  这个义人就这样地立在《圣经》的稳固根基之上。有天上的光辉照耀在他的脸上。当他指控谬论的权势,并证明那得胜世界的信心的超越性时,就向众人表现了他人格的伟大和纯洁,以及他内心的平安与喜乐。     Thus stood this righteous man upon the sure foundation of the word of God. The light of heaven illuminated his countenance. His greatness and purity of character, his peace and joy of heart, were manifest to all as he testified against the power of error and witnessed to the superiority of that faith that overcomes the world. {GC 160.3}
     
50  会场一时惊讶无言。在第一次回答的时候,路德用很低的声音,带着恭敬而几乎是驯服的态度讲话。罗马教徒以为这种态度表明他的勇气已经开始消失了。也认为他延期的请求就是他反悔的先声。查理本人带着一点轻视的态度,注意到这个修道士消瘦的身体,朴实的服装,和简单的言词,便向人说:“这个人永不会把我变成一个叛教徒。”而今路德有力而清晰的理论,和他所表现的勇敢和毅力,使各派的人都很惊奇。皇帝也惊异地说道:“这个修道士说话有胆识,有坚强的勇敢。”德国的许多诸侯很得意地,兴奋地,注视着这一位他们本国的代表。     The whole assembly were for a time speechless with amazement. At his first answer Luther had spoken in a low tone, with a respectful, almost submissive bearing. The Romanists had interpreted this as evidence that his courage was beginning to fail. They regarded the request for delay as merely the prelude to his recantation. Charles himself, noting, half contemptuously, the monk's worn frame, his plain attire, and the simplicity of his address, had declared: "This monk will never make a heretic of me." The courage and firmness which he now displayed, as well as the power and clearness of his reasoning, filled all parties with surprise. The emperor, moved to admiration, exclaimed: "This monk speaks with an intrepid heart and unshaken courage." Many of the German princes looked with pride and joy upon this representative of their nation. {GC 160.4}
     
51  罗马教派已被打败了;他们的形势显得非常不利。他们每次企图维持自己的权势时,总没有运用《圣经》的真理,而是借助于威胁的手段,这就是罗马惯用的武器。议会的代言人说:“倘若你不撤回,皇帝和境内的各邦将要考虑怎样对付一个顽固不化的叛教徒。”     The partisans of Rome had been worsted; their cause appeared in a most unfavorable light. They sought to maintain their power, not be appealing to the Scriptures, but by a resort to threats, Rome's unfailing argument. Said the spokesman of the Diet: "If you do not retract, the emperor and the states of the empire will consult what course to adopt against an incorrigible heretic." {GC 161.1}
     
52  路德的朋友们起先是非常快乐地听着路德勇敢的辩护,现在听到这些话就发抖了;但这位博士自己却沉着地说:“但愿我的上帝作我的帮助,因为我不能撤回什么。”(注二四)     Luther's friend, who had with great joy listened to his noble defense, trembled at these words; but the doctor himself said calmly: "May God be my helper, for I can retract nothing."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 8. {GC 161.2}
     
53  他被指示退出会场,以便诸侯聚集商讨。当时众人都感觉到已有极大的危机来临。路德的坚决不肯屈服可能影响到将来许多世纪的教会历史。因此他们就决定再给他一个撤回的机会。他最后一次被带到大会上。这个问题又重新向他提出,问他肯不肯放弃他自己的教义。他说:“除了我已经回答的以外,我没有别的话讲。”很明显的,无论是利诱或是威胁,都不能使他屈服于罗马的命令。     He was directed to withdraw from the Diet while the princes consulted together. It was felt that a great crisis had come. Luther's persistent refusal to submit might affect the history of the church for ages. It was decided to give him one more opportunity to retract. For the last time he was brought into the assembly. Again the question was put, whether he would renounce his doctrines. "I have no other reply to make," he said, "than that which I have already made." It was evident that he could not be induced, either by promises or threats, to yield to the mandate of Rome. {GC 161.3}
     
54  罗马教的权势曾经使君王与贵族颤抖不已,而现在竟被一个卑微的修道士如此藐视,罗马教廷的领袖们就恼羞成怒;他们希望能用苦刑把他折磨至死,使他尝受他们的忿怒。路德明知自己的危险,但他在大会中说话,仍然表现着基督化的庄严和沉着。他的话语里没有一点骄傲,感情的冲动,或虚伪的作风。他竟忘记了自己,和那些包围着他的大人物;只感觉到自己是站在那远远超过皇帝,君王,教皇,和主教之上的圣者面前。基督已经借着路德的见证,用大能和威严讲话,并一时令他的朋友和敌人都肃然起敬,大大惊奇。有上帝的灵临格在大会之中,感动全国首领们的心。有几位诸侯大胆承认路德的改革运动是正义的。许多人的心被真理所折服;但有一些人所受的感动只是暂时的。还有一些人虽然当时没有发表意见,但经过亲自考查《圣经》之后,在后来就成了宗教改革运动的无畏的拥护者了。     The papal leaders were chagrined that their power, which had caused kings and nobles to tremble, should be thus despised by a humble monk; they longed to make him feel their wrath by torturing his life away. But Luther, understanding his danger, had spoken to all with Christian dignity and calmness. His words had been free from pride, passion, and misrepresentation. He had lost sight of himself, and the great men surrounding him, and felt only that he was in the presence of One infinitely superior to popes, prelates, kings, and emperors. Christ had spoken through Luther's testimony with a power and grandeur that for the time inspired both friends and foes with awe and wonder. The Spirit of God had been present in that council, impressing the hearts of the chiefs of the empire. Several of the princes boldly acknowledged the justice of Luther's cause. Many were convinced of the truth; but with some the impressions received were not lasting. There was another class who did not at the time express their convictions, but who, having searched the Scriptures for themselves, at a future time became fearless supporters of the Reformation. {GC 161.4}
     
55  选侯腓特烈从前曾热切地期待着路德出席议会,所以现在听着他的演说深受感动。他亲眼见到路德的勇敢,坚决和沉着,就不胜欣喜而得意,并决意更要努力维护他。他把敌对的双方比较一下,就看出教皇,君王,和主教们的智慧,在真理的能力之下已化为乌有。罗马教廷已遭受了一次失败,而其影响将要波及各代,各国。     The elector Frederick had looked forward anxiously to Luther's appearance before the Diet, and with deep emotion he listened to his speech. With joy and pride he witnessed the doctor's courage, firmness, and self-possession, and determined to stand more firmly in his defense. He contrasted the parties in contest, and saw that the wisdom of popes, kings, and prelates had been brought to nought by the power of truth. The papacy had sustained a defeat which would be felt among all nations and in all ages. {GC 162.1}
     
56  当教皇的使节看到路德演说所产生的影响时,他就为罗马教廷的权势空前地惧怕起来了;他决意要用一切办法来除灭这位改革家。他使尽了一切的口才和杰出的外交手腕,向这位年青的皇帝说明,若是他在这一个无名的修道士的案件上牺牲了强有力的罗马教廷的友谊和支持,乃是愚妄而危险的。     As the legate perceived the effect produced by Luther's speech, he feared, as never before, for the security of the Romish power, and resolved to employ every means at his command to effect the Reformer's overthrow. With all the eloquence and diplomatic skill for which he was so eminently distinguished, he represented to the youthful emperor the folly and danger of sacrificing, in the cause of an insignificant monk, the friendship and support of the powerful see of Rome. {GC 162.2}
     
57  他的话终于起了作用。在路德答复的第二天,查理便下谕旨给议会,宣布他决心要执行前任皇帝的政策,维持并保护罗马教。路德既然不肯放弃他错谬的道理,就应当采取最严厉的手段来对付他和他所传的“异端”。“仅仅一个修道士因自己的愚鲁误入歧途,居然敢挺身反抗全基督教世界的信仰。我宁愿牺牲我的国度,我的财宝,我的朋友,我的身体和血,我的灵魂和我的生命,来制止这个邪道。我即将命令奥古斯丁派的路德回去,禁止他在民间进行任何扰乱;然后我要把他和他的一党看作顽固的叛徒予以制裁,逐出教会,停止活动,我还要尽一切方法把他们消灭。我号召各州的议员要在行动上作忠实的基督徒。”(注二五)虽然如此,皇帝也宣布必须尊重路德的护照,必须先让他平安到家,然后再采取措施制裁他。     His words were not without effect. On the day following Luther's answer, Charles caused a message to be presented to the Diet, announcing his determination to carry out the policy of his predecessors to maintain and protect the Catholic religion. Since Luther had refused to renounce his errors, the most vigorous measures should be employed against him and the heresies he taught. "A single monk, misled by his own folly, has risen against the faith of Christendom. To stay such impiety, I will sacrifice my kingdoms, my treasures, my friends, my body, my blood, my soul, and my life. I am about to dismiss the Augustine Luther, forbidding him to cause the least disorder among the people; I shall then proceed against him and his adherents as contumacious heretics, by excommunication, by interdict, and by every means calculated to destroy them. I call on the members of the states to behave like faithful Christians."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 9. Nevertheless the emperor declared that Luther's safe-conduct must be respected, and that before proceedings against him could be instituted, he must be allowed to reach his home in safety. {GC 162.3}
     
58  这时议会的议员提出了两个相反的意见。教皇的使节和代表们又提出要求,不要尊重路德的护照。他们说:“莱茵河要容纳他的骨灰,正如一百年前容纳胡斯约翰的骨灰一样。”(注二六)但德国的许多诸侯虽然自己是罗马教徒,是路德公开的敌人,但却反对这种破坏信誉的举动。他们认这种举动有损国家的尊荣。他们指出,在胡斯死后接连着发生一些灾祸,并声称他们再不敢惹上帝的恼怒,以致使那些可怕的灾祸重演在德国和他们年青的皇帝身上。     Two conflicting opinions were now urged by the members of the Diet. The emissaries and representatives of the pope again demanded that the Reformer's safe-conduct should be disregarded. "The Rhine," they said, "should receive his ashes, as it had received those of John Huss a century ago."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 9. But princes of Germany, though themselves papists and avowed enemies to Luther, protested against such a breach of public faith, as a stain upon the honor of the nation. They pointed to the calamities which had followed the death of Huss, and declared that they dared not call down upon Germany, and upon the head of their youthful emperor, a repetition of those terrible evils. {GC 163.1}
     
59  查理本人在答复使节这个卑鄙的建议时,认为“尊荣与信誉即使从全地消灭,却仍应在君王心中存有地位。”(注二七)后来教廷方面最仇恨路德的敌人,又催促皇帝采取西基斯孟过去对付胡斯的办法来对付路德,──把他交给教廷全权处理;但查理回想到当日胡斯在大会上指着自己身上的链条,提醒西基斯孟皇帝所发出保护的诺言那一幕情景,就说:“我不愿象西基斯孟那样面红耳赤。”(注二八)     Charles himself, in answer to the base proposal, said: "Though honor and faith should be banished from all the world, they ought to find a refuge in the hearts of princes." --Ibid., b. 7, ch. 9. He was still further urged by the most bitter of Luther's papal enemies to deal with the Reformer as Sigismund had dealt with Huss--abandon him to the mercies of the church; but recalling the scene when Huss in public assembly had pointed to his chains and reminded the monarch of his plighted faith, Charles V declared: "I should not like to blush like Sigismund."--Lenfant, vol. 1, p. 422. {GC 163.2}
     
60  然而查理故意拒绝路德所陈述的真理。他写道:“我坚决主张步我祖先的后尘。”(注二八)他已决定不肯违犯旧规,甚至真理和公义也可置之不顾。因为他的祖先都是拥护罗马教廷的,所以他也要照样而行,连教廷的残酷和腐败他也要袒护。他拿定了主意,凡他祖先所未曾接受过的亮光,一概拒绝接受,凡他祖先所未曾履行过的责任,一概拒绝履行。     Yet Charles had deliberately rejected the truths presented by Luther. "I am firmly resolved to imitate the example of my ancestors," wrote the monarch.--D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 9. He had decided that he would not step out of the path of custom, even to walk in the ways of truth and righteousness. Because his fathers did, he would uphold the papacy, with all its cruelty and corruption. Thus he took his position, refusing to accept any light in advance of what his fathers had received, or to perform any duty that they had not performed. {GC 163.3}
     
61  现代有许多人也同样地紧紧墨守着祖宗的习惯和遗传。当主赐给他们新的亮光时,因为他们的祖先既没有得到这些亮光,也没有接受过,他们就一概拒绝。殊不知我们的地位不同于我们祖先的地位;因此,我们的本分和责任也就与他们不同了。我们若依照我们祖先的榜样来决定自己的本分,而不去为自己查考真理的道,上帝是不悦纳的。我们的责任比我们的祖先更大。他们所接受的光,固然要传授给我们,也要我们负责遵循,但现在从上帝的道中所照在我们身上的新的亮光,也是要我们负责遵循的。     There are many at the present day thus clinging to the customs and traditions of their fathers. When the Lord sends them additional light, they refuse to accept it, because, not having been granted to their fathers, it was not received by them. We are not placed where our fathers were; consequently our duties and responsibilities are not the same as theirs. We shall not be approved of God in looking to the example of our fathers to determine our duty instead of searching the word of truth for ourselves. Our responsibility is greater than was that of our ancestors. We are accountable for the light which they received, and which was handed down as an inheritance for us, and we are accountable also for the additional light which is now shining upon us from the word of God. {GC 164.1}
     
62  基督曾论到那些不信的犹太人说:“我若没有来教训他们,他们就没有罪;但如今他们的罪无可推诿了。”(约15:22)如今借着路德,这同一的神圣权能已向德国的皇帝和诸侯讲话。而且当亮光从上帝的道中发出的时候,上帝的灵就最后一次向大会中的许多人发出恳劝。正像一千多年前,彼拉多容许骄傲和虚荣关闭了他的心门,拒绝了世界的救赎主;又像那惶恐的腓力斯吩咐那位真理的使者说:“你暂且去吧,等我得便再叫你来,”(徒24:25)又像那骄傲的亚基帕王承认说:“你这样劝我,几乎叫我作基督徒了。”(徒26:28。小注)照样,查理第五甘心接受了世俗的骄傲与智慧的影响,而决心拒绝真理的光。  
  Said Christ of the unbelieving Jews: "If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloak for their sin." John 15:22. The same divine power had spoken through Luther to the emperor and princes of Germany. And as the light shone forth from God's word, His Spirit pleaded for the last time with many in that assembly. As Pilate, centuries before, permitted pride and popularity to close his heart against the world's Redeemer; as the trembling Felix bade the messenger of truth, "Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee;" as the proud Agrippa confessed, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian" (Acts 24:25; 26:28), yet turned away from the Heaven-sent message--so had Charles V, yielding to the dictates of worldly pride and policy, decided to reject the light of truth. {GC 164.2}

 

     
63  阴谋杀害路德的谣言普遍地传开了,随而引起全城的骚动。这位改革家已经结识了许多朋友,这些朋友深知罗马对于那些胆敢揭露她罪行的人所施的阴险毒辣手段,就决心不让路德牺牲在她手里。有数百名贵族立誓要保护他。有不少人公然抨击皇帝给大会的谕旨,认为这是表示他对罗马教廷统治权力的一种懦弱的屈服。在公共的场所和私人住宅的门上,贴了许多标语,有些是攻击路德的,有些是支持路德的,有一个门上仅仅写着一句意味深长的智慧者的话:“邦国啊,你的王若是孩童,……你就有祸了。”(传10:16)全国群众拥护路德的热潮高涨起来,使皇帝和议会都深深觉悟到,如果对路德有任何不公正的处置,势必危害帝国的安全,甚至危及宝座的安定。     Rumors of the designs against Luther were widely circulated, causing great excitement throughout the city. The Reformer had made many friends, who, knowing the treacherous cruelty of Rome toward all who dared expose her corruptions, resolved that he should not be sacrificed. Hundreds of nobles pledged themselves to protect him. Not a few openly denounced the royal message of evincing a weak submission to the controlling power of Rome. On the gates of houses and in public places, placards were posted, some condemning and others sustaining Luther. On one of these were written merely the significant words of the wise man: "Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child." Ecclesiastes 10:16. The popular enthusiasm in Luther's favor throughout all Germany convinced both the emperor and the Diet that any injustice shown him would endanger the peace of the empire and even the stability of the throne. {GC 164.3}
     
64  撒克逊的腓特烈胸有成竹,故保持缄默,谨慎地隐瞒着他对这位改革家的真实心意,同时却殷切不倦地警惕着,留心注意路德和他敌人的一切行动。但有许多人并没有人企图隐瞒自己对于路德的同情。诸侯,公爵,男爵以及社会上和宗教界的许多有名望的人物都来拜访他。改革运动的历史家斯伯拉丁写道,“这位博士的小房间,容不下那些自动来拜访的宾客们。”(注二九)群众看他好像是超人一等的人物。甚至那些不相信他教训的人,也不得不钦佩他那种宁愿殉身而不愿违背良心的高尚品质。     Frederick of Saxony maintained a studied reserve, carefully concealing his real feelings toward the Reformer, while at the same time he guarded him with tireless vigilance, watching all his movements and all those of his enemies. But there were many who made no attempt to conceal their sympathy with Luther. He was visited by princes, counts, barons, and other persons of distinction, both lay and ecclesiastical. "The doctor's little room," wrote Spalatin, "could not contain all the visitors who presented themselves."-- Martyn, vol. 1, p. 404. The people gazed upon him as if he were more than human. Even those who had no faith in his doctrines could not but admire that lofty integrity which led him to brave death rather than violate his conscience. {GC 165.1}
     
65  另有许多人竭力规劝路德和罗马教廷妥协。许多贵族和诸侯都向他说明,如果他坚持他的主张而不顾教廷和大会的意见,他不久将要被逐出国境,以后就没有保障了。对于这种劝告,路德回答说:“传基督的福音而不得罪人,是不可能的。……既然如此,我为什么要让惧怕危险的心使我和主的那唯一真理的圣道隔绝呢?不!我宁愿牺牲我的身体,我的热血,和我的性命。”(注三十)     Earnest efforts were made to obtain Luther's consent to a compromise with Rome. Nobles and princes represented to him that if he persisted in setting up his own judgment against that of the church and the councils he would soon be banished from the empire and would have no defense. To this appeal Luther answered: "The gospel of Christ cannot be preached without offense. . . . Why then should the fear or apprehension of danger separate me from the Lord, and from that divine word which alone is truth? No; I would rather give up my body, my blood, and my life."-- D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 10. {GC 165.2}
     
66  后来他们又力劝他服从皇帝的判断,那么,他就可以无所惧怕了。他回答说:“我完全同意让皇帝,诸侯,甚至最卑微的信徒来检查和判断我的著作;但只有一个条件,他们必须以上帝的道为他们的标准。人除了服从上帝的圣道以外,没有其他更大的义务。我的良心是完全受《圣经》的约束,所以请你们不要叫我违背良心。”(注三一)     Again he was urged to submit to the judgment of the emperor, and then he would have nothing to fear. "I consent," said he in reply, "with all my heart, that the emperor, the princes, and even the meanest Christian, should examine and judge my works; but on one condition, that they take the word of God for their standard. Men have nothing to do but to obey it. Do not offer violence to my conscience, which is bound and chained up with the Holy Scriptures."-- Ibid., b. 7, ch. 10. {GC 166.1}
     
67  他又回答另外一位的劝告说:“我同意放弃我的护照,听凭皇帝处理我个人的身体和我的性命;至于上帝的道──则决不能!”(注三二)他表示愿意接受大会的决议,但是唯一的条件,就是大会必须按照《圣经》来判决。他又说:“纵使教皇有一百万个大会来支持他,关于上帝的道和信仰问题,每一个信徒也都能自行决定,像教皇决定的一样。”(注三三)他的朋友和敌人最后都感觉再进行和解也是无用的了。     To another appeal he said: "I consent to renounce my safe-conduct. I place my person and my life in the emperor's hands, but the word of God--never!"--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 10. He stated his willingness to submit to the decision of a general council, but only on condition that the council be required to decide according to the Scriptures. "In what concerns the word of God and the faith," he added, "every Christian is as good a judge as the pope, though supported by a million councils, can be for him."--Martyn, vol. 1, p. 410. Both friends and foes were at last convinced that further effort for reconciliation would be useless. {GC 166.2}
     
68  倘若路德仅仅让了一步,撒但和他的全军就必得胜了。但由于他坚定不移的忠心,教会终于获得了释放,一个新的,更美好的时代已经开始了。这一个在自己的宗教信仰上敢想敢作的人,不仅影响到当时代的教会和全世界,而也要影响到以后的每一个时代。他的坚强和忠心将要激励每一个遭遇同样经历的人,直到末时。在那一次的会议上,上帝的能力和威严已经显现出来,超过了人的计谋和撒但的大能。     Had the Reformer yielded a single point, Satan and his hosts would have gained the victory. But his unwavering firmness was the means of emancipating the church, and beginning a new and better era. The influence of this one man, who dared to think and act for himself in religious matters, was to affect the church and the world, not only in his own time, but in all future generations. His firmness and fidelity would strengthen all, to the close of time, who should pass through a similar experience. The power and majesty of God stood forth above the counsel of men, above the mighty power of Satan. {GC 166.3}
     
69  不久,路德就接到皇帝的御旨叫他回去,他知道这御旨一下,紧接着他的罪案就要确定了。在他行的路上布满了恐怖的黑云;但是当他离开俄姆斯的时候,他心里充满了喜乐和赞美。他说:“撒但亲自在把守着教皇的堡垒;但基督已经把它打破了,所以魔鬼不得不承认基督的能力比他更大。”(注三四)     Luther was soon commanded by the authority of the emperor to return home, and he knew that this notice would be speedily followed by his condemnation. Threatening clouds overhung his path; but as he departed from Worms, his heart was filled with joy and praise. "The devil himself," said he, "guarded the pope's citadel; but Christ has made a wide breach in it, and Satan was constrained to confess that the Lord is mightier than he."--D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 11. {GC 166.4}
     
70  路德动身以后,他惟恐自己的决心被人误会为反叛,所以就上奏皇帝道:“鉴察人心的上帝是我的见证,他知道我如何准备要全心地尽忠陛下,除了那使人活着的上帝的道以外,毁誉褒贬,或生或死,均所不顾。在今生的一切事情上,我的忠心将是不动摇的;因为在这些事情上,或得或失,均于救恩无关。但在有关永恒利害的问题上,上帝的旨意不是要人服从人。这种属灵的服从才是真实的敬拜,并且这种敬拜只应当归于创造主。”(注三五)     After his departure, still desirous that his firmness should not be mistaken for rebellion, Luther wrote to the emperor. "God, who is the searcher of hearts, is my witness," he said, "that I am ready most earnestly to obey your majesty, in honor or in dishonor, in life or in death, and with no exception save the word of God, by which man lives. In all the affairs of this present life, my fidelity shall be unshaken, for here to lose or to gain is of no consequence to salvation. But when eternal interests are concerned, God wills not that man should submit unto man. For such submission in spiritual matters is a real worship, and ought to be rendered solely to the Creator."--Ibid., b. 7, ch. 11. {GC 167.1}
     
71  路德在归途中所受到的欢迎,比他来的时候更为热烈。高贵的主教们竟欢迎了这位被逐出教的修道士,而政府的官长们也招待了这位被皇帝所斥责的人。他被邀请讲道,虽然皇帝已下过禁令,但他仍上了讲台。他说:“我从来没有答应过,将来也永不会答应锁住上帝的道。”(注三六)     On the journey from Worms, Luther's reception was even more flattering than during his progress thither. Princely ecclesiastics welcomed the excommunicated monk, and civil rulers honored the man whom the emperor had denounced. He was urged to preach, and, notwithstanding the imperial prohibition, he again entered the pulpit. "I never pledged myself to chain up the word of God," he said, "nor will I." --Martyn, vol. 1, p. 420. {GC 167.2}
     
72  路德离开俄姆斯不久,罗马教徒奏准了皇帝,叫他出一道制裁路德的御旨。在这道御旨里,路德被斥为“是撒但的化身,披着一件修道士的外衣。”(注三七)皇帝下令,一俟路德的护照期满,立即采取措施制止他的活动。所有的人民一律不许包庇,供给他饮食,或在言语行动方面公开或私下予以任何协助。同时通令全国,把路德就地逮捕,送交官府。所有依附他的人,也必须予以监禁和收没收财产的处分。他的著作要全部焚毁,凡胆敢违抗政府法令的人,应治以同等之罪。当时撒克逊选侯以及所有路德友好的诸侯,在路德动身以后不久,都纷纷离了俄姆斯,因此,皇帝这道命令就在议会中通过了。于是罗马教徒们都欢呼高兴起来。他们认为宗教改革运动是注定要消灭的了。     He had not been long absent from Worms, when the papists prevailed upon the emperor to issue an edict against him. In this decree Luther was denounced as "Satan himself under the form of a man and dressed in a monk's frock."-- D'Aubigne, b. 7, ch. 11. It was commanded that as soon as his safe-conduct should expire, measures be taken to stop his work. All persons were forbidden to harbor him, to give him food or drink, or by word or act, in public or private, to aid or abet him. He was to be seized wherever he might be, and delivered to the authorities. His adherents also were to be imprisoned and their property confiscated. His writings were to be destroyed, and, finally, all who should dare to act contrary to this decree were included in its condemnation. The elector of Saxony and the princes most friendly to Luther had left Worms soon after his departure, and the emperor's decree received the sanction of the Diet. Now the Romanists were jubilant. They considered the fate of the Reformation sealed. {GC 167.3}
     
73  在这危险的时机,上帝已经为他的仆人预备了一条出路。那不疲倦的眼已在追随着路德的行动,一颗真诚高贵的心,已决定要营救他。显而易见地,罗马教廷非置路德于死地是决不罢休的;所以若要保护他脱离这狮子的口,就必须把他隐藏起来。上帝赐智慧给撒克逊的腓特烈,使他想出一个保全路德性命的计划。在几个忠实朋友的协助之下,这位选侯的目的终于达到了,路德被他们隐藏起来,以致他的朋友和敌人都找不到他。在路德的归途中他忽然被拿,离开了他的的同伴,很快地穿过森林,被带到瓦特堡的城堡──一个偏僻的山寨上。他的被拿和隐藏都是在极端秘密中进行的,甚至腓特烈自己有一段很长的时期也不知道路德究竟被带到什么地方去。这也不是没有目的的;只要这位选侯不知道路德的下落,他就不可能透露什么消息。他自己既知路德安全无恙,也就放心了。     God had provided a way of escape for His servant in this hour of peril. A vigilant eye had followed Luther's movements, and a true and noble heart had resolved upon his rescue. It was plain that Rome would be satisfied with nothing short of his death; only by concealment could he be preserved from the jaws of the lion. God gave wisdom to Frederick of Saxony to devise a plan for the Reformer's preservation. With the co-operation of true friends the elector's purpose was carried out, and Luther was effectually hidden from friends and foes. Upon his homeward journey he was seized, separated from his attendants, and hurriedly conveyed through the forest to the castle of Wartburg, an isolated mountain fortress. Both his seizure and his concealment were so involved in mystery that even Frederick himself for a long time knew not whither he had been conducted. This ignorance was not without design; so long as the elector knew nothing of Luther's whereabouts, he could reveal nothing. He satisfied himself that the Reformer was safe, and with this knowledge he was content. {GC 168.1}
     
74  春天,夏天,秋天已经过去了,冬天又来了,路德依然是一个被囚的人。亚利安德和他的党羽欢欣雀跃,以为福音的真光将要熄灭了。但相反地,这位改革家却在那里从真理的仓库中,把自己的灯装满了油;并且它的光将要更明亮地照射出来。     Spring, summer, and autumn passed, and winter came, and Luther still remained a prisoner. Aleander and his partisans exulted as the light of the gospel seemed about to be extinguished. But instead of this, the Reformer was filling his lamp from the storehouse of truth; and its light was to shine forth with brighter radiance. {GC 168.2}
     
75  路德在瓦特堡友善安全的生活中,曾一度因能摆脱酣战和烦扰而欣喜。但他不能长期满意于这种安静和休闲的生活。他惯于过一种活动和战斗的生活,所以对于这长期的隐退实难以忍受。在那些孤寂的日子里,教会的情况发展现在他面前,于是他在绝望中喊着说:“哀哉!在这上帝愤怒的末后日子里,竟没有一个人像堡垒一样站立在主的面前,来拯救以色列民!”(注三八)接着,他又联想到自己,他怕有人说他是因懦弱而退出了战场。于是他就责备自己的懒惰和安逸。其实,在这些日子里,他每天所作的工还超过了一个人平常所能作的。他的笔总没有停过。当路德的敌人们正在自欺自慰地说他的口已被封住时,他们便忽然看到明显的凭据,证明路德仍在继续活动,这就使他们惊慌失措了。从他笔锋之下出来的大批宗教册子传遍了德国全境。他也完成了一项极重要的工作,就是将《新约圣经》译成德文给他的同胞。在他那磐石般的“拔摩海岛”上,他继续宣扬福音,并斥责当时代的罪恶和谬道,为时将近一年之久。     In the friendly security of the Wartburg, Luther for a time rejoiced in his release from the heat and turmoil of battle. But he could not long find satisfaction in quiet and repose. Accustomed to a life of activity and stern conflict, he could ill endure to remain inactive. In those solitary days the condition of the church rose up before him, and he cried in despair. "Alas! there is no one in this latter day of His anger, to stand like a wall before the Lord, and save Israel!"--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 2. Again, his thoughts returned to himself, and he feared being charged with cowardice in withdrawing from the contest. Then he reproached himself for his indolence and self-indulgence. Yet at the same time he was daily accomplishing more than it seemed possible for one man to do. His pen was never idle. While his enemies flattered themselves that he was silenced, they were astonished and confused by tangible proof that he was still active. A host of tracts, issuing from his pen, circulated throughout Germany. He also performed a most important service for his countrymen by translating the New Testament into the German tongue. From his rocky Patmos he continued for nearly a whole year to proclaim the gospel and rebuke the sins and errors of the times. {GC 168.3}
     
76  上帝使他的仆人退隐,不仅是为要保护他脱离敌人的忿怒,也不仅是为要给他一段安静的时间来完成这些重要的工作。还有比这一切更宝贵的收获;在他避难于山间的孤寂和隐退中,他失去了属世的支持,并远离了人间的称赞。这样,他就蒙拯救脱离了那因成功而常常产生的骄傲和自恃。借着痛苦和谦卑他又得了准备,可以在令人眩晕的高位上,就是他忽然升到的地位上,安全地进行工作。     But it was not merely to preserve Luther from the wrath of his enemies, nor even to afford him a season of quiet for these important labors, that God had withdrawn His servant from the stage of public life. There were results more precious than these to be secured. In the solitude and obscurity of his mountain retreat, Luther was removed from earthly supports and shut out from human praise. He was thus saved from the pride and self-confidence that are so often caused by success. By suffering and humiliation he was prepared again to walk safely upon the dizzy heights to which he had been so suddenly exalted. {GC 169.1}
     
77  当人们在真理所带来的自由中欢呼时,他们往往轻易赞扬那些上帝所用来斩断谬道和迷信之锁链的仆人。撒但力求使人的思想和感情转离上帝而注意到人的身上;他引诱他们去尊荣那些不过是作上帝工具的人,而忽视了那掌管着一切时事变化的主。宗教领袖们这样受到了赞美和敬重,往往就会忘记自己必须依靠上帝,而渐渐走到自恃的地步。结果,他们就想要控制群众的思想和良心,特别是那些易于依赖他们的指导而不注意上帝的话的人。因为改革运动的拥护者感染了这种精神,就必使改革运动受到拦阻。故此,上帝要保护宗教改革运动脱离这种危险。上帝要这个运动不受到人的影响,而只受到他的感化。众人的视线已经转移到路德身上,以他为真理的解释者;所以上帝就把他隐藏起来,为要使众人的视线可以转移到那真理的永生创始者身上。     As men rejoice in the freedom which the truth brings them, they are inclined to extol those whom God has employed to break the chains of error and superstition. Satan seeks to divert men's thoughts and affections from God, and to fix them upon human agencies; he leads them to honor the mere instrument and to ignore the Hand that directs all the events of providence. Too often religious leaders who are thus praised and reverenced lose sight of their dependence upon God and are led to trust in themselves. As a result they seek to control the minds and consciences of the people, who are disposed to look to them for guidance instead of looking to the word of God. The work of reform is often retarded because of this spirit indulged by its supporters. From this danger, God would guard the cause of the Reformation. He desired that work to receive, not the impress of man, but that of God. The eyes of men had been turned to Luther as the expounder of the truth; he was removed that all eyes might be directed to the eternal Author of truth. {GC 169.2}
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* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
回复 过路人会员 的评论
我们教会正学习这本书
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能邮寄一些吗
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如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037
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* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
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* 过路人会员 发表于 2007-7-21 21:15:29
我们教会正学习这本书
但这边却买不到
很不方便
能邮寄一些吗
最少20本
* yilin会员 发表于 2007-8-3 12:41:15
过路人: 请查看你的QQ信箱
* chenhen715会员 发表于 2013-4-14 20:37:49
如果要订购《善恶之争》这本书请与我联系:QQ:920463037